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  1. The blood brain barrier (BBB) is the first line of defence of the central nervous system (CNS) against circulating pathogens, such as HIV. The cytotoxic HIV protein, gp120, damages endothelial cells of the BBB...

    Authors: Dianne Langford, Rosemary Hurford, Makoto Hashimoto, Murat Digicaylioglu and Eliezer Masliah

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2005 6:8

    Content type: Research article

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  2. The pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is comprised of extracellular amyloid plaques, intracellular tau tangles, dystrophic neurites and neurodegeneration. The mechanisms by which these various pathological...

    Authors: Chad A Dickey, Marcia N Gordon, Donna M Wilcock, Donna L Herber, Melissa J Freeman and Dave Morgan

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2005 6:7

    Content type: Research article

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  3. The progressive nature of Wallerian degeneration has long been controversial. Conflicting reports that distal stumps of injured axons degenerate anterogradely, retrogradely, or simultaneously are based on stat...

    Authors: Bogdan Beirowski, Robert Adalbert, Diana Wagner, Daniela S Grumme, Klaus Addicks, Richard R Ribchester and Michael P Coleman

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2005 6:6

    Content type: Research article

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  4. In Leber's congenital amaurosis (LCA), affected individuals are blind, or nearly so, from birth. This early onset suggests abnormal development of the neural retina. Mutations in genes that affect the developm...

    Authors: Eric M Morrow, Takahisa Furukawa, Elio Raviola and Constance L Cepko

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2005 6:5

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Nerve growth factor (NGF), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) all play important roles in the development of the peripheral sensory nervous system. ...

    Authors: Theodore J Price, Michael D Louria, Damaries Candelario-Soto, Gregory O Dussor, Nathanial A Jeske, Amol M Patwardhan, Anibal Diogenes, Amanda A Trott, Kenneth M Hargreaves and Christopher M Flores

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2005 6:4

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Iron is necessary for neuronal function but in excess generates neurodegeneration. Although most of the components of the iron homeostasis machinery have been described in neurons, little is known about the pa...

    Authors: Pabla Aguirre, Natalia Mena, Victoria Tapia, Miguel Arredondo and Marco T Núñez

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2005 6:3

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are pentameric proteins that are important drug targets for a variety of diseases including Alzheimer's, schizophrenia and various forms of epilepsy. One of the most ...

    Authors: Steven D Buckingham, Luanda Pym, Andrew K Jones, Laurence Brown, Mark SP Sansom, David B Sattelle and Philip C Biggin

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2005 6:2

    Content type: Database

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  8. Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder triggered by an expanded polyglutamine tract in huntingtin that is thought to confer a new conformational property on this large protein. Th...

    Authors: Jin Wang, Silvia Gines, Marcy E MacDonald and James F Gusella

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2005 6:1

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Define covariates of cerebrospinal corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) levels in normal humans. CRHCSF was measured in 9 normal subjects as part of an intensive study of physiological responses stressors in chr...

    Authors: James N Baraniuk, Hilda Maibach, Gail Whalen and Daniel J Clauw

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2004 5:58

    Content type: Research article

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  10. JNCL is a recessively inherited, childhood-onset neurodegenerative disease most-commonly caused by a ~1 kb CLN3 mutation. The resulting loss of battenin activity leads to deposition of mitochondrial ATP synthase,...

    Authors: Elisa Fossale, Pavlina Wolf, Janice A Espinola, Tanya Lubicz-Nawrocka, Allison M Teed, Hanlin Gao, Dorotea Rigamonti, Elena Cattaneo, Marcy E MacDonald and Susan L Cotman

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2004 5:57

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Sign-language comprehension activates the auditory cortex in deaf subjects. It is not known whether this functional plasticity in the temporal cortex is age dependent. We conducted functional magnetic-resonanc...

    Authors: Norihiro Sadato, Hiroki Yamada, Tomohisa Okada, Masaki Yoshida, Takehiro Hasegawa, Ken-Ichi Matsuki, Yoshiharu Yonekura and Harumi Itoh

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2004 5:56

    Content type: Research article

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  12. The neuroprotective effect of xenon has been demonstrated for glutamatergic neurons. In the present study it is investigated if dopaminergic neurons, i.e. nerve-growth-factor differentiated PC-12 cells, are pr...

    Authors: Christian Petzelt, Per Blom, Wolfgang Schmehl, Jana Müller and Wolfgang J Kox

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2004 5:55

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Leptin and insulin are long-term regulators of body weight. They act in hypothalamic centres to modulate the function of specific neuronal subtypes, by altering transcriptional control of releasable peptides a...

    Authors: Shirin Mirshamsi, Hilary A Laidlaw, Ke Ning, Erin Anderson, Laura A Burgess, Alexander Gray, Calum Sutherland and Michael LJ Ashford

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2004 5:54

    Content type: Research article

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  14. GABAergic inhibition and effects of intracellular chloride ions on calcium channel activity have been proposed to regulate neurotransmission from photoreceptors. To assess the impact of these and other chlorid...

    Authors: Wallace B Thoreson and Eric J Bryson

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2004 5:53

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Ischemia within the optic nerve head (ONH) may contribute to retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). Ischemia has been reported to increase neurotrophin and high affinity Trk re...

    Authors: Wendi S Lambert, Abbot F Clark and Robert J Wordinger

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2004 5:51

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Chronic food restriction augments the rewarding effect of centrally administered psychostimulant drugs and this effect may involve a previously documented upregulation of D-1 dopamine receptor-mediated MAP kin...

    Authors: Yan Pan, Yemiliya Berman and Kenneth D Carr

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2004 5:50

    Content type: Research article

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  17. There is great interest in appropriate phenotypes that serve as indicator of genetically transmitted frontal (dys)function, such as ADHD. Here we investigate the ability to deal with response conflict, and we ...

    Authors: John F Stins, G Caroline M van Baal, Tinca JC Polderman, Frank C Verhulst and Dorret I Boomsma

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2004 5:49

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Behavior results from the integration of ongoing sensory signals and contextual information in various forms, such as past experience, expectations, current goals, etc. Thus, the response to a specific stimulu...

    Authors: Emilio Salinas

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2004 5:47

    Content type: Research article

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  19. During the preovulatory surge of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), a very large amount of the peptide is released in the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal blood for 24-36H00. To study whether this release is...

    Authors: Martine Batailler, Alain Caraty, Benoît Malpaux and Yves Tillet

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2004 5:46

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Human faces provide important signals in social interactions by inferring two main types of information, individual identity and emotional expression. The ability to readily assess both, the variability and co...

    Authors: Jan Gläscher, Oliver Tüscher, Cornelius Weiller and Christian Büchel

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2004 5:45

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Knowledge of how synapses alter their efficiency of communication is central to the understanding of learning and memory. The most extensively studied forms of synaptic plasticity are long-term potentiation (L...

    Authors: Andreas Lüthi, Martin A Wikström, Mary J Palmer, Paul Matthews, Tim A Benke, John TR Isaac and Graham L Collingridge

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2004 5:44

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Topographic reorganization of central maps following peripheral nerve injury has been well characterized. Despite extensive documentation of these physiological changes, the underlying anatomical correlates ha...

    Authors: James D Churchill, Jason A Tharp, Cara L Wellman, Dale R Sengelaub and Preston E Garraghty

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2004 5:43

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Consciousness poses two main problems. The first is understanding the conditions that determine to what extent a system has conscious experience. For instance, why is our consciousness generated by certain par...

    Authors: Giulio Tononi

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2004 5:42

    Content type: Research article

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  24. In order to optimize the potential benefits of neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, it is necessary to understand their biological characteristics. Although ...

    Authors: Lennard P Niles, Kristen J Armstrong, Lyda M Rincón Castro, Chung V Dao, Rohita Sharma, Catherine R McMillan, Laurie C Doering and David L Kirkham

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2004 5:41

    Content type: Research article

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  25. How does the brain convert sounds and phonemes into comprehensible speech? In the present magnetoencephalographic study we examined the hypothesis that the coherence of electromagnetic oscillatory activity wit...

    Authors: Markus Härle, Brigitte S Rockstroh, Andreas Keil, Christian Wienbruch and Thomas R Elbert

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2004 5:40

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Tasks involving conflict are widely used to study executive attention. In the flanker task, a target stimulus is surrounded by distracting information that can be congruent or incongruent with the correct resp...

    Authors: M Rosario Rueda, Michael I Posner, Mary K Rothbart and Clintin P Davis-Stober

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2004 5:39

    Content type: Research article

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  27. While it is well known that bradykinin B2 agonists increase plasma protein extravasation (PPE) in brain tumors, the bradykinin B1 agonists tested thus far are unable to produce this effect. Here we examine the...

    Authors: Ronie Cleverson Cardoso, Bruno Lobão-Soares, Marino Muxfeldt Bianchin, Carlos Gilberto Carlotti Jr, Roger Walz, Márcio Alvarez-Silva, Andréa Gonçalves Trentin and Mauro Nicolau

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2004 5:38

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Microvascular alterations contribute to the development of stroke and vascular dementia. The goal of this study was to evaluate age and hypertension related changes of the basal lamina in cerebral microvessels...

    Authors: Olga Uspenskaia, Martin Liebetrau, Jochen Herms, Adrian Danek and Gerhard F Hamann

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2004 5:37

    Content type: Research article

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  29. The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) have been shown to participate in a wide array of cellular functions. A role for some MAPKs (e.g., extracellular signal-regulated kinase, Erk1/2) has been document...

    Authors: Chang-peng Shen, Yelena Tsimberg, Christopher Salvadore and Emanuel Meller

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2004 5:36

    Content type: Research article

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  30. To reach and grasp an object in space on the basis of its image cast on the retina requires different coordinate transformations that take into account gaze and limb positioning. Eye position in the orbit infl...

    Authors: Frédéric Andersson, Olivier Etard, Pierre Denise and Laurent Petit

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2004 5:35

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Hemin, the oxidized form of heme, accumulates in intracranial hematomas and is a potent oxidant. Growing evidence suggests that it contributes to delayed injury to surrounding tissue, and that this process is ...

    Authors: Raymond F Regan, Jing Chen and Luna Benvenisti-Zarom

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2004 5:34

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Spontaneous repair is limited after CNS injury or degeneration because neurogenesis and axonal regrowth rarely occur in the adult brain. As a result, cell transplantation has raised much interest as potential ...

    Authors: Sabine Wislet-Gendebien, Françoise Bruyère, Grégory Hans, Pierre Leprince, Gustave Moonen and Bernard Rogister

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2004 5:33

    Content type: Research article

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  33. In rat, deafferentation of one labyrinth (unilateral labyrinthectomy) results in a characteristic syndrome of ocular and motor postural disorders (e.g., barrel rotation, circling behavior, and spontaneous nyst...

    Authors: Adrian F Lozada, Antti A Aarnisalo, Kaj Karlstedt, Holger Stark and Pertti Panula

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2004 5:32

    Content type: Research article

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  34. The inferior colliculus, which receives almost all ascending and descending auditory signals, plays a crucial role in the processing of auditory information. While the majority of the recorded activities in th...

    Authors: Walaiporn Tongjaroenbungam, Nopporn Jongkamonwiwat, Joanna Cunningham, Pansiri Phansuwan-Pujito, Hilary C Dodson, Andrew Forge, Piyarat Govitrapong and Stefano O Casalotti

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2004 5:31

    Content type: Research article

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  35. We examine results of gain-of-function experiments on retinocollicular maps in knock-in mice [Brown et al. (2000) Cell 102:77]. In wild-type mice the temporal-nasal axis of retina is mapped to the rostral-caud...

    Authors: Alexei A Koulakov and Dmitry N Tsigankov

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2004 5:30

    Content type: Research article

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  36. The primary sensory cortex (S1) in the postcentral gyrus is comprised of four areas that each contain a body map, where the representation of the hand is located with the thumb most laterally, anteriorly and i...

    Authors: Danielle van Westen, Peter Fransson, Johan Olsrud, Birgitta Rosén, Göran Lundborg and Elna-Marie Larsson

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2004 5:28

    Content type: Research article

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  37. As development proceeds the human embryo attains an ever more complex three dimensional (3D) structure. Analyzing the gene expression patterns that underlie these changes and interpreting their significance de...

    Authors: Janet Kerwin, Mark Scott, James Sharpe, Luis Puelles, Stephen C Robson, Margaret Martínez-de-la-Torre, Jose Luis Ferran, Guangjie Feng, Richard Baldock, Tom Strachan, Duncan Davidson and Susan Lindsay

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2004 5:27

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) type glutamate receptors is essential in triggering various forms of synaptic plasticity. A critical issue is to what extent such plasticity involves persistent change...

    Authors: Mikhail Dozmorov, Rui Li, Hui-Ping Xu, Barbro Jilderos and Holger Wigström

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2004 5:26

    Content type: Research article

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  39. The channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, is invested with a high density of cutaneous taste receptors, particularly on the barbel appendages. Many of these receptors are sensitive to selected amino acids, one of...

    Authors: William Grosvenor, Yuri Kaulin, Andrew I Spielman, Douglas L Bayley, D Lynn Kalinoski, John H Teeter and Joseph G Brand

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2004 5:25

    Content type: Research article

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  40. In fish, melanin pigment granules in the retinal pigment epithelium disperse into apical projections as part of the suite of responses the eye makes to bright light conditions. This pigment granule dispersion ...

    Authors: Alfredo González III, Elizabeth L Crittenden and Dana M García

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2004 5:23

    Content type: Research article

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  41. In prior work we detected reduced anti-Aβ antibody titers in Aβ-vaccinated transgenic mice expressing the human amyloid precursor protein (APP) compared to nontransgenic littermates. We investigated this obser...

    Authors: Qingyou Li, Chuanhai Cao, Bryce Chackerian, John Schiller, Marcia Gordon, Kenneth E Ugen and Dave Morgan

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2004 5:21

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Although previous studies suggest that postural control requires attention and other cognitive resources, the central mechanisms responsible for this relationship remain unclear. To address this issue, we exam...

    Authors: Sylvia Quant, Allan L Adkin, W Richard Staines, Brian E Maki and William E McIlroy

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2004 5:18

    Content type: Research article

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