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  1. Research article

    The order of complexity of visuomotor learning

    Learning algorithms come in three orders of complexity: zeroth-order (perturbation), first-order (gradient descent), and second-order (e.g., quasi-Newton). But which of these are used in the brain? We trained ...

    John Kim, Fariya Mostafa and Douglas Blair Tweed

    BMC Neuroscience 2017 18:50

    Published on: 12 June 2017

  2. Research article

    White matter damage and systemic inflammation in Parkinson’s disease

    Systemic inflammation and white matter (WM) alterations have been noted as effects of Parkinson’s disease (PD). This study sought to evaluate WM integrity in PD patients using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) an...

    Pi-Ling Chiang, Hsiu-Ling Chen, Cheng-Hsien Lu, Pei-Chin Chen, Meng-Hsiang Chen, I.-Hsiao Yang, Nai-Wen Tsai and Wei-Che Lin

    BMC Neuroscience 2017 18:48

    Published on: 8 June 2017

  3. Research article

    Antagonistic action on NMDA/GluN2B mediated currents of two peptides that were conantokin-G structure-based designed

    The GluN2B subunit of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) modulates many physiological processes including learning, memory, and pain. Excessive increase in NMDAr/GluN2B activity has been associated with va...

    Edwin A. Reyes-Guzman, Nohora Vega-Castro, Edgar A. Reyes-Montaño and Esperanza Recio-Pinto

    BMC Neuroscience 2017 18:44

    Published on: 16 May 2017

  4. Research article

    Normobaric hypoxia overnight impairs cognitive reaction time

    Impaired reaction time in patients suffering from hypoxia during sleep, caused by sleep breathing disorders, is a well-described phenomenon. High altitude sleep is known to induce periodic breathing with centr...

    Stephan Pramsohler, Stefan Wimmer, Martin Kopp, Hannes Gatterer, Martin Faulhaber, Martin Burtscher and Nikolaus Cristoph Netzer

    BMC Neuroscience 2017 18:43

    Published on: 15 May 2017

  5. Research article

    Astaxanthin protects astrocytes against trauma-induced apoptosis through inhibition of NKCC1 expression via the NF-κB signaling pathway

    Astaxanthin (ATX) is a carotenoid pigment with pleiotropic pharmacological properties that is seen as a possible drug for treating cerebral ischemic injury and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Na+–K+–2Cl co-transporter-...

    Mingkun Zhang, Zhenwen Cui, Hua Cui, Yong Wang and Chunlong Zhong

    BMC Neuroscience 2017 18:42

    Published on: 10 May 2017

  6. Research article

    Effects of escitalopram and paroxetine on mTORC1 signaling in the rat hippocampus under chronic restraint stress

    Recent studies have suggested that the activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling may be related to antidepressant action. Therefore, the present study evaluated whether antidepressant drugs ...

    Mi Kyoung Seo, Cheol Min Choi, Roger S. McIntyre, Hye Yeon Cho, Chan Hong Lee, Rodrigo B. Mansur, Yena Lee, Jae-Hon Lee, Young Hoon Kim, Sung Woo Park and Jung Goo Lee

    BMC Neuroscience 2017 18:39

    Published on: 26 April 2017

  7. Review

    Linoleic acid: Is this the key that unlocks the quantum brain? Insights linking broken symmetries in molecular biology, mood disorders and personalistic emergentism

    In this paper we present a mechanistic model that integrates subneuronal structures, namely ion channels, membrane fatty acids, lipid rafts, G proteins and the cytoskeleton in a dynamic system that is finely t...

    Massimo Cocchi, Chiara Minuto, Lucio Tonello, Fabio Gabrielli, Gustav Bernroider, Jack A. Tuszynski, Francesco Cappello and Mark Rasenick

    BMC Neuroscience 2017 18:38

    Published on: 19 April 2017

  8. Research article

    Transcriptional signatures of steroid hormones in the striatal neurons and astrocytes

    The mechanisms of steroids actions in the brain mainly involve the binding and nuclear translocation of specific cytoplasmic receptors. These receptors can act as transcription factors and regulate gene expres...

    Marcin Piechota, Michał Korostynski, Slawomir Golda, Joanna Ficek, Danuta Jantas, Ziolkowska Barbara and Ryszard Przewlocki

    BMC Neuroscience 2017 18:37

    Published on: 5 April 2017

  9. Research article

    Effectiveness of conservative interventions for sickness and pain behaviors induced by a high repetition high force upper extremity task

    Systemic inflammation is known to induce sickness behaviors, including decreased social interaction and pain. We have reported increased serum inflammatory cytokines in a rat model of repetitive strain injury ...

    D. L. Xin, J. Hadrévi, M. E. Elliott, M. Amin, M. Y. Harris, A. E. Barr-Gillespie and M. F. Barbe

    BMC Neuroscience 2017 18:36

    Published on: 29 March 2017

  10. Research article

    An immunohistochemical, enzymatic, and behavioral study of CD157/BST-1 as a neuroregulator

    Recent rodent and human studies provide evidence in support of the fact that CD157, well known as bone marrow stromal cell antigen-1 (BST-1) and a risk factor in Parkinson’s disease, also meaningfully acts in ...

    Haruhiro Higashida, Mingkun Liang, Toru Yoshihara, Shirin Akther, Azam Fakhrul, Cherepanov Stanislav, Tae-Sik Nam, Uh-Hyun Kim, Satoka Kasai, Tomoko Nishimura, Naila Al Mahmuda, Shigeru Yokoyama, Katsuhiko Ishihara, Maria Gerasimenko, Alla Salmina, Jing Zhong…

    BMC Neuroscience 2017 18:35

    Published on: 24 March 2017

  11. Research article

    A receptor-based analysis of local ecosystems in the human brain

    As a complex system, the brain is a self-organizing entity that depends on local interactions among cells. Its regions (anatomically defined nuclei and areas) can be conceptualized as cellular ecosystems, but ...

    Skirmantas Janušonis

    BMC Neuroscience 2017 18:33

    Published on: 20 March 2017

  12. Research article

    Hypertonic saline attenuates expression of Notch signaling and proinflammatory mediators in activated microglia in experimentally induced cerebral ischemia and hypoxic BV-2 microglia

    Ischemic stroke is a major disease that threatens human health in ageing population. Increasing evidence has shown that neuroinflammatory mediators play crucial roles in the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemi...

    Wen-Xin Zeng, Yong-Li Han, Gao-Feng Zhu, Lin-Qiang Huang, Yi-Yu Deng, Qiao-Sheng Wang, Wen-Qiang Jiang, Miao-Yun Wen, Qian-Peng Han, Di Xie and Hong-Ke Zeng

    BMC Neuroscience 2017 18:32

    Published on: 14 March 2017

  13. Research article

    Effect of skilled reaching training and enriched environment on generation of oligodendrocytes in the adult sensorimotor cortex and corpus callosum

    Increased motor activity or social interactions through enriched environment are strong stimulators of grey and white matter plasticity in the adult rodent brain. In the present study we evaluated whether spe...

    Silke Keiner, Fanny Niv, Susanne Neumann, Tanja Steinbach, Christian Schmeer, Katrin Hornung, Yvonne Schlenker, Martin Förster, Otto W. Witte and Christoph Redecker

    BMC Neuroscience 2017 18:31

    Published on: 9 March 2017

  14. Research article

    Effect of Spp1 on nerve degeneration and regeneration after rat sciatic nerve injury

    Wallerian degeneration (WD) in injured peripheral nerves is associated with a large number of up- or down-regulated genes, but the effects of these changes are poorly understood. In our previous studies, we re...

    Xingyu Liu, Yuhua Sun, Huaiqin Li, Yuting Li, Meiyuan Li, Ying Yuan, Shusen Cui and Dengbing Yao

    BMC Neuroscience 2017 18:30

    Published on: 7 March 2017

  15. Research article

    Experience-dependent modulation of alpha and beta during action observation and motor imagery

    EEG studies investigating the neural networks that facilitate action observation (AO) and kinaesthetic motor imagery (KMI) have shown reduced, or desynchronized, power in the alpha (8–12 Hz) and beta (13–30 Hz...

    Paula M. Di Nota, Julie M. Chartrand, Gabriella R. Levkov, Rodrigo Montefusco-Siegmund and Joseph F. X. DeSouza

    BMC Neuroscience 2017 18:28

    Published on: 6 March 2017

  16. Research article

    Upregulation of the endothelin A (ETA) receptor and its association with neurodegeneration in a rodent model of glaucoma

    Primary open angle glaucoma is a heterogeneous group of optic neuropathies that results in optic nerve degeneration and a loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) ultimately causing blindness if allowed to progre...

    Nolan R. McGrady, Alena Z. Minton, Dorota L. Stankowska, Shaoqing He, Hayden B. Jefferies and Raghu R. Krishnamoorthy

    BMC Neuroscience 2017 18:27

    Published on: 1 March 2017

  17. Research article

    EEG correlates of working memory performance in females

    The study investigates oscillatory brain activity during working memory (WM) tasks. The tasks employed varied in two dimensions. First, they differed in complexity from average to highly demanding. Second, we ...

    Yuri G. Pavlov and Boris Kotchoubey

    BMC Neuroscience 2017 18:26

    Published on: 13 February 2017

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