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  1. Content type: Research article

    Reinforcement learning is a fundamental form of learning that may be formalized using the Bellman equation. Accordingly an agent determines the state value as the sum of immediate reward and of the discounted ...

    Authors: Judit Zsuga, Klara Biro, Gabor Tajti, Magdolna Emma Szilasi, Csaba Papp, Bela Juhasz and Rudolf Gesztelyi

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:70

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Fused in sarcoma (FUS) is an RNA-binding protein associated with the neurodegenerative diseases amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. ALS manifests in patients as a progres...

    Authors: Kasey L. Jackson, Hemangini A. Dhaibar, Robert D. Dayton, Sergio G. Cananzi, William G. Mayhan, Edward Glasscock and Ronald L. Klein

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:69

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Transcranial focused ultrasound (FUS) is gaining momentum as a novel non-invasive brain stimulation method, with promising potential for superior spatial resolution and depth penetration compared to transcrani...

    Authors: Wonhye Lee, Yong An Chung, Yujin Jung, In-Uk Song and Seung-Schik Yoo

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:68

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  4. Content type: Research article

    The spatial resolution of repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for language mapping is largely unknown. Thus, to determine a minimum spatial resolution of rTMS for language mapping, we...

    Authors: Nico Sollmann, Theresa Hauck, Lorena Tussis, Sebastian Ille, Stefanie Maurer, Tobias Boeckh-Behrens, Florian Ringel, Bernhard Meyer and Sandro M. Krieg

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:67

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Limited surveys have assessed the performance of 5-hydroxytreptamine receptor 1A and its antagonist WAY-100635 in pharmacological manipulations targeting delirium therapies. The purpose of this paper was to as...

    Authors: Yimin Qiu, Dongmei Chen, Xiaojing Huang, Lina Huang, Liang Tang, Jihong Jiang, Lianhua Chen and Shitong Li

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:66

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  6. Content type: Research article

    There is evidence that experimentally elicited auditory illusions in the general population index risk for psychotic symptoms. As little is known about underlying cortical mechanisms of auditory illusions, an ...

    Authors: E. Schepers, L. Bodar, J. van Os and R. Lousberg

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:65

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  7. Content type: Research article

    Cerebral oedema is closely related to the permeability of blood–brain barrier, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) all of which are...

    Authors: Linqiang Huang, Wei Cao, Yiyu Deng, Gaofeng Zhu, Yongli Han and Hongke Zeng

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:64

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Larval zebrafish, with a simple and transparent vertebrate brain composed of ~100 K neurons, is well suited for deciphering entire neural circuit activity underlying behavior. Moreover, their small body size (...

    Authors: Yiming Bai, Harrison Liu, Bo Huang, Mahendra Wagle and Su Guo

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:63

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Bilateral adrenalectomy has been shown to damage the hippocampal neurons. Although the effects of long-term adrenalectomy have been studied extensively there are few publications on the effects of short-term a...

    Authors: Naserddine Hamadi, Azimullah Sheikh, Nather Madjid, Loai Lubbad, Naheed Amir, Safa Al-Deen Saudi Shehab, Fatima Khelifi-Touhami and Abdu Adem

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:61

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Astaxanthin is a carotenoid pigment that possesses potent antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and immunomodulatory activities. Previous studies have demonstrated that astaxanthin displays potential ne...

    Authors: Mingkun Zhang, Zhenwen Cui, Hua Cui, Yang Cao, Yong Wang and Chunlong Zhong

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:60

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Rehabilitation, which is essential for amputees with myoelectric hands, can improve the quality of daily life by remodeling the neuron network. In our study, we aim to develop a cerebral blood perfusion (CBF) ...

    Authors: Qiufang Liu, Xiujuan Zheng, Panli Li, Lian Xu, Longwen He, Zhao Mei, Yinyan Zhu, Gang Huang, Chunlong Zhong and Shaoli Song

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:59

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a movement disorder affecting 1 % of people over the age of 60. The etiology of the disease is unknown; however, accumulating evidence suggests that mitochondrial defects, oxidative s...

    Authors: Hayate Javed, Sheikh Azimullah, Salema B. Abul Khair, Shreesh Ojha and M. Emdadul Haque

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:58

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  13. Content type: Meeting abstracts

    A1 Functional advantages of cell-type heterogeneity in neural circuits

    Authors: Tatyana O. Sharpee, Alain Destexhe, Mitsuo Kawato, Vladislav Sekulić, Frances K. Skinner, Daniel K. Wójcik, Chaitanya Chintaluri, Dorottya Cserpán, Zoltán Somogyvári, Jae Kyoung Kim, Zachary P. Kilpatrick, Matthew R. Bennett, Kresimir Josić, Irene Elices, David Arroyo, Rafael Levi…

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17(Suppl 1):54

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    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 17 Supplement 1

  14. Content type: Research article

    Mechanosensitive afferents innervating the bladder increase their firing rate as the bladder fills and pressure rises. However, the relationship between afferent firing rates and intravesical pressure is not a...

    Authors: Shani E. Ross, Zachariah J. Sperry, Colin M. Mahar and Tim M. Bruns

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:57

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Recurrent convulsions can cause irreversible astrocyte death, impede neuron regeneration, and further aggravate brain damage. MicroRNAs have been revealed as players in the progression of numerous diseases inc...

    Authors: Liqun Liu, Lingjuan Liu, Jiayun Shi, Menglin Tan, Jie Xiong, Xingfang Li, Qingpeng Hu, Zhuwen Yi and Ding’an Mao

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:56

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Understanding the relationship between a stimulus and how it is perceived reveals fundamental principles about the mechanisms of sensory perception. While this stimulus-percept problem is mostly understood for...

    Authors: Andreas Keller and Leslie B. Vosshall

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:55

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Amyloid-beta (Aβ) accumulation is a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) that can lead to neuronal dysfunction and apoptosis. Tumor necrosis factor, alpha-induced protein 1 (TNFAIP1) is an apoptotic protein th...

    Authors: Ning Liu, Zhanyang Yu, Yu Xun, Miaomiao Li, Xiaoning Peng, Ye Xiao, Xiang Hu, Yi Sun, Manjun Yang, Shiquan Gan, Shishan Yuan, Xiaoying Wang, Shuanglin Xiang and Jian Zhang

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:51

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Polymorphisms in the gene for phosphatidylinositol binding clathrin assembly protein (PICALM), an endocytic-related protein, are associated with a small, increased risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD), ...

    Authors: Rhian S. Thomas, Alex Henson, Amy Gerrish, Lesley Jones, Julie Williams and Emma J. Kidd

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:50

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Perivascular stromal cells (PSCs) are a recently identified cell type that comprises a small percentage of the platelet derived growth factor receptor-β+ cells within the CNS perivascular space. PSCs are activ...

    Authors: Kathleen K. Kelly, Amber M. MacPherson, Himmat Grewal, Frank Strnad, Jace W. Jones, Jianshi Yu, Keely Pierzchalski, Maureen A. Kane, Paco S. Herson and Julie A. Siegenthaler

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:49

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  20. Content type: Methodology article

    In many functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, experimental design often depends on the eye state (i.e., whether the participants had their eyes open or closed). Closed eyes during an fMRI is th...

    Authors: Stefan Brodoehl, Otto W. Witte and Carsten M. Klingner

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:48

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Peripheral neuropathy is a common and dose-limiting side effect of many cancer chemotherapies. The taxane agents, including paclitaxel (Taxol®), are effective chemotherapeutic drugs but cause degeneration of pred...

    Authors: Aniqa Tasnim, Zoe Rammelkamp, Amy B. Slusher, Krystyna Wozniak, Barbara S. Slusher and Mohamed H. Farah

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:47

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  22. Content type: Research article

    We previously reported the production of transgenic rats (APP21 line) that over-express human amyloid precursor protein (APP) containing Swedish and Indiana mutations. In order to generate a better model for A...

    Authors: Cansu Agca, Diana Klakotskaia, Todd R. Schachtman, Anthony W. Chan, James J. Lah and Yuksel Agca

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:46

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  23. Content type: Research article

    Recent research has documented structural brain abnormalities in various criminal offenders. However, there have been few brain imaging studies of sex offenders, and none on white matter integrity. The curren...

    Authors: Chiao-Yun Chen, Adrian Raine, Kun-Hsien Chou, I-Yun Chen, Daisy Hung and Ching-Po Lin

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:45

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Murine models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are mainly based on overexpression of pathologic amyloid precursor protein and/or presenilins. Those genes resemble underlying cause of early onset type of AD while ab...

    Authors: Kristina Endres, Sven Reinhardt, Anastasia Geladaris, Julia Knies, Marcus Grimm, Tobias Hartmann and Ulrich Schmitt

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:44

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  25. Content type: Research article

    MCT14 (SLC16A14) is an orphan member of the monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) family, also known as the SLC16 family of secondary active transmembrane transporters. Available expression data for this transport...

    Authors: Sahar Roshanbin, Frida A. Lindberg, Emilia Lekholm, Mikaela M. Eriksson, Emelie Perland, Johan Åhlund, Amanda Raine and Robert Fredriksson

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:43

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  26. Content type: Research article

    After spinal cord (SC)-injury, a non-modulated immune response contributes to the damage of neural tissue. Protective autoimmunity (PA) is a T cell mediated, neuroprotective response induced after SC-injury. ...

    Authors: Susana Martiñón, Elisa García-Vences, Diana Toscano-Tejeida, Adrian Flores-Romero, Roxana Rodriguez-Barrera, Manuel Ferrusquia, Rolando E. Hernández-Muñoz and Antonio Ibarra

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:42

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Anticipatory and compensatory balance responses are used by the central nervous system (CNS) to preserve balance, hence they significantly contribute to the understanding of physiological mechanisms of postura...

    Authors: Andresa M. C. Germano, Daniel Schmidt and Thomas L. Milani

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:41

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  28. Content type: Methodology article

    Various strategies have been used for inferring brain functions from stroke lesions. We explored a new mathematical approach based on game theory, the so-called multi-perturbation Shapley value analysis (MSA),...

    Authors: Melissa Zavaglia, Nils D. Forkert, Bastian Cheng, Christian Gerloff, Götz Thomalla and Claus C. Hilgetag

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:40

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Regression of myelinated peripheral nerve fibers in the lower extremities contributes to sarcopenia and balance dysfunction in normal aging. This subclinical regression of myelinated fibers (MFs) is heavily in...

    Authors: Masahiro Sakita, Shinichiro Murakami and Hidemi Fujino

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:39

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Resiniferatoxin (RTX) is a potent analog of capsaicin and activates transient receptor potential (TRP) vanilloid type (TRPV) 1. In the current study, we investigated the preventive effect of perineural RTX on ...

    Authors: Won Uk Koh, Seong-Soo Choi, Ji Hyun Kim, Hye Joo Yoon, Ho-Soo Ahn, Sun Kyung Lee, Jeong Gil Leem, Jun Gol Song and Jin Woo Shin

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:38

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) analogs protect a variety of cell types against oxidative damage and vascular and neuronal injury via binding to GLP-1 receptors. This study aimed to investigate the effects of ...

    Authors: Ping-Chia Li, Li-Fen Liu, Ming-Jia Jou and Hao-Kuang Wang

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:37

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  32. Content type: Research article

    The potential adverse effect of mobile phone radiation is currently an area of great concern in the field of public health. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of mobile phone radiation (9...

    Authors: Zien Zhou, Jiehui Shan, Jinyan Zu, Zengai Chen, Weiwei Ma, Lei Li and Jianrong Xu

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:36

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  33. Content type: Research article

    Aristaless-related homeobox (ARX) is a paired-like homeodomain transcription factor that functions primarily as a transcriptional repressor and has been implicated in neocortical interneuron specification and mig...

    Authors: Eric D. Marsh, MacLean Pancoast Nasrallah, Caroline Walsh, Kaitlin A. Murray, C. Nicole Sunnen, Almedia McCoy and Jeffrey A. Golden

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:35

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Previously, we have shown that transgenic cells bearing the GDNF gene with deleted pre- and pro-regions (mGDNF) can release transgenic GDNF. The medium conditioned by transgenic cells with mGDNF induced axonal...

    Authors: A. Revishchin, L. Moiseenko, N. Kust, N. Bazhenova, P. Teslia, D. Panteleev, V. Kovalzon and G. Pavlova

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:34

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Kainic acid (KA)-induced excitotoxicity promotes cytoplasmic calcium accumulation, oxidative stress, and apoptotic signaling, leading to hippocampal neuronal death. Mitochondria play a critical role in neuroin...

    Authors: Hwajin Kim, Jong Youl Lee, Keon Jae Park, Won-Ho Kim and Gu Seob Roh

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:33

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Neuroscience 2017 18:16

  36. Content type: Research article

    Retinal inflammation can cause retinal neural disorders. In particular, functional disorder in the cone photoreceptor system influences visual acuity. However, the underlying mechanism is not yet fully underst...

    Authors: Mamoru Kamoshita, Kaoru Fujinami, Eriko Toda, Kazuo Tsubota and Yoko Ozawa

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:32

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  37. Content type: Research article

    Canine intervertebral disc πherniation causes a naturally-occurring spinal cord injury (SCI) that bears critical similarities to human SCI with respect to both injury pathomechanisms and treatment. As such, it...

    Authors: Rae L. Russell, Jonathan M. Levine, Nick D. Jeffery, Colin Young, Armando Mondragon, Bryan Lee, C. Elizabeth Boudreau, C. Jane Welsh and Gwendolyn J. Levine

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:31

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  38. Content type: Methodology article

    Conducting research on the molecular biology, immunology, and physiology of brain tumors (BTs) and primary brain tissues requires the use of viably dissociated single cells. Inadequate methods for tissue diss...

    Authors: Ilan Volovitz, Netanel Shapira, Haim Ezer, Aviv Gafni, Merav Lustgarten, Tal Alter, Idan Ben-Horin, Ori Barzilai, Tal Shahar, Andrew Kanner, Itzhak Fried, Igor Veshchev, Rachel Grossman and Zvi Ram

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:30

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  39. Content type: Research article

    The magnitude of multimodal enhancement in the brain is believed to depend on the stimulus intensity and timing. Such an effect has been found in many species, but has not been previously investigated in insects.

    Authors: Anna Balkenius and Christian Balkenius

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:29

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  40. Content type: Research article

    In the current study, a transient cerebral ischemia producing selective cell death was designated a mild ischemic insult. A comparable insult in humans is a transient ischemic attack (TIA) that is associated with...

    Authors: Ursula I. Tuor, Zonghang Zhao, Philip A. Barber and Min Qiao

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:28

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  41. Content type: Methodology article

    Functional connectivity analyses of multiple neurons provide a powerful bottom-up approach to reveal functions of local neuronal circuits by using simultaneous recording of neuronal activity. A statistical met...

    Authors: Shigeyuki Oba, Ken Nakae, Yuji Ikegaya, Shunsuke Aki, Junichiro Yoshimoto and Shin Ishii

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:27

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  42. Content type: Research article

    Anorexia can occur as a serious complication of disease. Increasing evidence suggests that inflammation plays a major role, along with a hypothalamic dysregulation characterized by locally elevated serotonin l...

    Authors: J. T. Dwarkasing, R. F. Witkamp, M. V. Boekschoten, M. C. Ter Laak, M. S. Heins and K. van Norren

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:26

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  43. Content type: Research article

    To get a broader view of global ischemia-induced cerebral disorders at the metabolic level, a nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomic study was performed to evaluate the metabolic profile changes on regio...

    Authors: Tianshu Zhang, Wei Wang, Jin Huang, Xia Liu, Haiyan Zhang and Naixia Zhang

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:25

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  44. Content type: Research article

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. Seizure-induced TLR4/MYD88 signaling plays a critical role in activating microglia and triggering neuron apoptosis. SA...

    Authors: Qing-Peng Hu and Ding-An Mao

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:22

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  45. Content type: Research article

    Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) often suffer from cognitive impairments, including set-shifting deficits, in addition to the characteristic motor symptoms. It is hypothesized that the striatal dopamine ...

    Authors: Corine C. de Bondt, Niels J. H. M. Gerrits, Dick J. Veltman, Henk W. Berendse, Odile A. van den Heuvel and Ysbrand D. van der Werf

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:20

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