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25th Annual Computational Neuroscience Meeting: CNS-2016

Table of contents

A1 Functional advantages of cell-type heterogeneity in neural circuits

Tatyana O. Sharpee

A2 Mesoscopic modeling of propagating waves in visual cortex

Alain Destexhe

A3 Dynamics and biomarkers of mental disorders

Mitsuo Kawato

F1 Precise recruitment of spiking output at theta frequencies requires dendritic h-channels in multi-compartment models of oriens-lacunosum/moleculare hippocampal interneurons

Vladislav Sekulić, Frances K. Skinner

F2 Kernel methods in reconstruction of current sources from extracellular potentials for single cells and the whole brains

Daniel K. Wójcik, Chaitanya Chintaluri, Dorottya Cserpán, Zoltán Somogyvári

F3 The synchronized periods depend on intracellular transcriptional repression mechanisms in circadian clocks.

Jae Kyoung Kim, Zachary P. Kilpatrick, Matthew R. Bennett, Kresimir Josić

O1 Assessing irregularity and coordination of spiking-bursting rhythms in central pattern generators

Irene Elices, David Arroyo, Rafael Levi, Francisco B. Rodriguez, Pablo Varona

O2 Regulation of top-down processing by cortically-projecting parvalbumin positive neurons in basal forebrain

Eunjin Hwang, Bowon Kim, Hio-Been Han, Tae Kim, James T. McKenna, Ritchie E. Brown, Robert W. McCarley, Jee Hyun Choi

O3 Modeling auditory stream segregation, build-up and bistability

James Rankin, Pamela Osborn Popp, John Rinzel

O4 Strong competition between tonotopic neural ensembles explains pitch-related dynamics of auditory cortex evoked fields

Alejandro Tabas, André Rupp, Emili Balaguer-Ballester

O5 A simple model of retinal response to multi-electrode stimulation

Matias I. Maturana, David B. Grayden, Shaun L. Cloherty, Tatiana Kameneva, Michael R. Ibbotson, Hamish Meffin

O6 Noise correlations in V4 area correlate with behavioral performance in visual discrimination task

Veronika Koren, Timm Lochmann, Valentin Dragoi, Klaus Obermayer

O7 Input-location dependent gain modulation in cerebellar nucleus neurons

Maria Psarrou, Maria Schilstra, Neil Davey, Benjamin Torben-Nielsen, Volker Steuber

O8 Analytic solution of cable energy function for cortical axons and dendrites

Huiwen Ju, Jiao Yu, Michael L. Hines, Liang Chen, Yuguo Yu

O9 C. elegans interactome: interactive visualization of Caenorhabditis elegans worm neuronal network

Jimin Kim, Will Leahy, Eli Shlizerman

O10 Is the model any good? Objective criteria for computational neuroscience model selection

Justas Birgiolas, Richard C. Gerkin, Sharon M. Crook

O11 Cooperation and competition of gamma oscillation mechanisms

Atthaphon Viriyopase, Raoul-Martin Memmesheimer, Stan Gielen

O12 A discrete structure of the brain waves

Yuri Dabaghian, Justin DeVito, Luca Perotti

O13 Direction-specific silencing of the Drosophila gaze stabilization system

Anmo J. Kim, Lisa M. Fenk, Cheng Lyu, Gaby Maimon

O14 What does the fruit fly think about values? A model of olfactory associative learning

Chang Zhao, Yves Widmer, Simon Sprecher,Walter Senn

O15 Effects of ionic diffusion on power spectra of local field potentials (LFP)

Geir Halnes, Tuomo Mäki-Marttunen, Daniel Keller, Klas H. Pettersen,Ole A. Andreassen, Gaute T. Einevoll

O16 Large-scale cortical models towards understanding relationship between brain structure abnormalities and cognitive deficits

Yasunori Yamada

O17 Spatial coarse-graining the brain: origin of minicolumns

Moira L. Steyn-Ross, D. Alistair Steyn-Ross

O18 Modeling large-scale cortical networks with laminar structure

Jorge F. Mejias, John D. Murray, Henry Kennedy, Xiao-Jing Wang

O19 Information filtering by partial synchronous spikes in a neural population

Alexandra Kruscha, Jan Grewe, Jan Benda, Benjamin Lindner

O20 Decoding context-dependent olfactory valence in Drosophila

Laurent Badel, Kazumi Ohta, Yoshiko Tsuchimoto, Hokto Kazama

P1 Neural network as a scale-free network: the role of a hub

B. Kahng

P2 Hemodynamic responses to emotions and decisions using near-infrared spectroscopy optical imaging

Nicoladie D. Tam

P3 Phase space analysis of hemodynamic responses to intentional movement directions using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) optical imaging technique

Nicoladie D.Tam, Luca Pollonini, George Zouridakis

P4 Modeling jamming avoidance of weakly electric fish

Jaehyun Soh, DaeEun Kim

P5 Synergy and redundancy of retinal ganglion cells in prediction

Minsu Yoo, S. E. Palmer

P6 A neural field model with a third dimension representing cortical depth

Viviana Culmone, Ingo Bojak

P7 Network analysis of a probabilistic connectivity model of the Xenopus tadpole spinal cord

Andrea Ferrario, Robert Merrison-Hort, Roman Borisyuk

P8 The recognition dynamics in the brain

Chang Sub Kim

P9 Multivariate spike train analysis using a positive definite kernel

Taro Tezuka

P10 Synchronization of burst periods may govern slow brain dynamics during general anesthesia

Pangyu Joo

P11 The ionic basis of heterogeneity affects stochastic synchrony

Young-Ah Rho, Shawn D. Burton, G. Bard Ermentrout, Jaeseung Jeong, Nathaniel N. Urban

P12 Circular statistics of noise in spike trains with a periodic component

Petr Marsalek

P14 Representations of directions in EEG-BCI using Gaussian readouts

Hoon-Hee Kim, Seok-hyun Moon, Do-won Lee, Sung-beom Lee, Ji-yong Lee, Jaeseung Jeong

P15 Action selection and reinforcement learning in basal ganglia during reaching movements

Yaroslav I. Molkov, Khaldoun Hamade, Wondimu Teka, William H. Barnett, Taegyo Kim, Sergey Markin, Ilya A. Rybak

P17 Axon guidance: modeling axonal growth in T-Junction assay

Csaba Forro, Harald Dermutz, László Demkó, János Vörös

P19 Transient cell assembly networks encode persistent spatial memories

Yuri Dabaghian, Andrey Babichev

P20 Theory of population coupling and applications to describe high order correlations in large populations of interacting neurons

Haiping Huang

P21 Design of biologically-realistic simulations for motor control

Sergio Verduzco-Flores

P22 Towards understanding the functional impact of the behavioural variability of neurons

Filipa Dos Santos, Peter Andras

P23 Different oscillatory dynamics underlying gamma entrainment deficits in schizophrenia

Christoph Metzner, Achim Schweikard, Bartosz Zurowski

P24 Memory recall and spike frequency adaptation

James P. Roach, Leonard M. Sander, Michal R. Zochowski

P25 Stability of neural networks and memory consolidation preferentially occur near criticality

Quinton M. Skilling, Nicolette Ognjanovski, Sara J. Aton, Michal Zochowski

P26 Stochastic Oscillation in Self-Organized Critical States of Small Systems: Sensitive Resting State in Neural Systems

Sheng-Jun Wang, Guang Ouyang, Jing Guang, Mingsha Zhang, K. Y. Michael Wong, Changsong Zhou

P27 Neurofield: a C++ library for fast simulation of 2D neural field models

Peter A. Robinson, Paula Sanz-Leon, Peter M. Drysdale, Felix Fung, Romesh G. Abeysuriya, Chris J. Rennie, Xuelong Zhao

P28 Action-based grounding: Beyond encoding/decoding in neural code

Yoonsuck Choe, Huei-Fang Yang

P29 Neural computation in a dynamical system with multiple time scales

Yuanyuan Mi, Xiaohan Lin, Si Wu

P30 Maximum entropy models for 3D layouts of orientation selectivity

Joscha Liedtke, Manuel Schottdorf, Fred Wolf

P31 A behavioral assay for probing computations underlying curiosity in rodents

Yoriko Yamamura, Jeffery R. Wickens

P32 Using statistical sampling to balance error function contributions to optimization of conductance-based models

Timothy Rumbell, Julia Ramsey, Amy Reyes, Danel Draguljić, Patrick R. Hof, Jennifer Luebke, Christina M. Weaver

P33 Exploration and implementation of a self-growing and self-organizing neuron network building algorithm

Hu He, Xu Yang, Hailin Ma, Zhiheng Xu, Yuzhe Wang

P34 Disrupted resting state brain network in obese subjects: a data-driven graph theory analysis

Kwangyeol Baek, Laurel S. Morris, Prantik Kundu, Valerie Voon

P35 Dynamics of cooperative excitatory and inhibitory plasticity

Everton J. Agnes, Tim P. Vogels

P36 Frequency-dependent oscillatory signal gating in feed-forward networks of integrate-and-fire neurons

William F. Podlaski, Tim P. Vogels

P37 Phenomenological neural model for adaptation of neurons in area IT

Martin Giese, Pradeep Kuravi, Rufin Vogels

P38 ICGenealogy: towards a common topology of neuronal ion channel function and genealogy in model and experiment

Alexander Seeholzer, William Podlaski, Rajnish Ranjan, Tim Vogels

P39 Temporal input discrimination from the interaction between dynamic synapses and neural subthreshold oscillations

Joaquin J. Torres, Fabiano Baroni, Roberto Latorre, Pablo Varona

P40 Different roles for transient and sustained activity during active visual processing

Bart Gips, Eric Lowet, Mark J. Roberts, Peter de Weerd, Ole Jensen, Jan van der Eerden

P41 Scale-free functional networks of 2D Ising model are highly robust against structural defects: neuroscience implications

Abdorreza Goodarzinick, Mohammad D. Niry, Alireza Valizadeh

P42 High frequency neuron can facilitate propagation of signal in neural networks

Aref Pariz, Shervin S. Parsi, Alireza Valizadeh

P43 Investigating the effect of Alzheimer’s disease related amyloidopathy on gamma oscillations in the CA1 region of the hippocampus

Julia M. Warburton, Lucia Marucci, Francesco Tamagnini, Jon Brown, Krasimira Tsaneva-Atanasova

P44 Long-tailed distributions of inhibitory and excitatory weights in a balanced network with eSTDP and iSTDP

Florence I. Kleberg, Jochen Triesch

P45 Simulation of EMG recording from hand muscle due to TMS of motor cortex

Bahar Moezzi, Nicolangelo Iannella, Natalie Schaworonkow, Lukas Plogmacher, Mitchell R. Goldsworthy, Brenton Hordacre, Mark D. McDonnell, Michael C. Ridding, Jochen Triesch

P46 Structure and dynamics of axon network formed in primary cell culture

Martin Zapotocky, Daniel Smit, Coralie Fouquet, Alain Trembleau

P47 Efficient signal processing and sampling in random networks that generate variability

Sakyasingha Dasgupta, Isao Nishikawa, Kazuyuki Aihara, Taro Toyoizumi

P48 Modeling the effect of riluzole on bursting in respiratory neural networks

Daniel T. Robb, Nick Mellen, Natalia Toporikova

P49 Mapping relaxation training using effective connectivity analysis

Rongxiang Tang, Yi-Yuan Tang

P50 Modeling neuron oscillation of implicit sequence learning

Guangsheng Liang, Seth A. Kiser, James H. Howard, Jr., Yi-Yuan Tang

P51 The role of cerebellar short-term synaptic plasticity in the pathology and medication of downbeat nystagmus

Julia Goncharenko, Neil Davey, Maria Schilstra, Volker Steuber

P52 Nonlinear response of noisy neurons

Sergej O. Voronenko, Benjamin Lindner

P53 Behavioral embedding suggests multiple chaotic dimensions underlie C. elegans locomotion

Tosif Ahamed, Greg Stephens

P54 Fast and scalable spike sorting for large and dense multi-electrodes recordings

Pierre Yger, Baptiste Lefebvre, Giulia Lia Beatrice Spampinato, Elric Esposito, Marcel Stimberg et Olivier Marre

P55 Sufficient sampling rates for fast hand motion tracking

Hansol Choi, Min-Ho Song

P56 Linear readout of object manifolds

SueYeon Chung, Dan D. Lee, Haim Sompolinsky

P57 Differentiating models of intrinsic bursting and rhythm generation of the respiratory pre-Bötzinger complex using phase response curves

Ryan S. Phillips, Jeffrey Smith

P58 The effect of inhibitory cell network interactions during theta rhythms on extracellular field potentials in CA1 hippocampus

Alexandra Pierri Chatzikalymniou, Katie Ferguson, Frances K. Skinner

P59 Expansion recoding through sparse sampling in the cerebellar input layer speeds learning

N. Alex Cayco Gajic, Claudia Clopath, R. Angus Silver

P60 A set of curated cortical models at multiple scales on Open Source Brain

Padraig Gleeson, Boris Marin, Sadra Sadeh, Adrian Quintana, Matteo Cantarelli, Salvador Dura-Bernal, William W. Lytton, Andrew Davison, R. Angus Silver

P61 A synaptic story of dynamical information encoding in neural adaptation

Luozheng Li, Wenhao Zhang, Yuanyuan Mi, Dahui Wang, Si Wu

P62 Physical modeling of rule-observant rodent behavior

Youngjo Song, Sol Park, Ilhwan Choi, Jaeseung Jeong, Hee-sup Shin

P64 Predictive coding in area V4 and prefrontal cortex explains dynamic discrimination of partially occluded shapes

Hannah Choi, Anitha Pasupathy, Eric Shea-Brown

P65 Stability of FORCE learning on spiking and rate-based networks

Dongsung Huh, Terrence J. Sejnowski

P66 Stabilising STDP in striatal neurons for reliable fast state recognition in noisy environments

Simon M. Vogt, Arvind Kumar, Robert Schmidt

P67 Electrodiffusion in one- and two-compartment neuron models for characterizing cellular effects of electrical stimulation

Stephen Van Wert, Steven J. Schiff

P68 STDP improves speech recognition capabilities in spiking recurrent circuits parameterized via differential evolution Markov Chain Monte Carlo

Richard Veale, Matthias Scheutz

P69 Bidirectional transformation between dominant cortical neural activities and phase difference distributions

Sang Wan Lee

P70 Maturation of sensory networks through homeostatic structural plasticity

Júlia Gallinaro, Stefan Rotter

P71 Corticothalamic dynamics: structure, number of solutions and stability of steady-state solutions in the space of synaptic couplings

Paula Sanz-Leon, Peter A. Robinson

P72 Optogenetic versus electrical stimulation of the parkinsonian basal ganglia. Computational study

Leonid L. Rubchinsky, Chung Ching Cheung, Shivakeshavan Ratnadurai-Giridharan

P73 Exact spike-timing distribution reveals higher-order interactions of neurons

Safura Rashid Shomali, Majid Nili Ahmadabadi, Hideaki Shimazaki, S. Nader Rasuli

P74 Neural mechanism of visual perceptual learning using a multi-layered neural network

Xiaochen Zhao, Malte J. Rasch

P75 Inferring collective spiking dynamics from mostly unobserved systems

Jens Wilting, Viola Priesemann

P76 How to infer distributions in the brain from subsampled observations

Anna Levina, Viola Priesemann

P77 Influences of embedding and estimation strategies on the inferred memory of single spiking neurons

Lucas Rudelt, Joseph T. Lizier, Viola Priesemann

P78 A nearest-neighbours based estimator for transfer entropy between spike trains

Joseph T. Lizier, Richard E. Spinney, Mikail Rubinov, Michael Wibral, Viola Priesemann

P79 Active learning of psychometric functions with multinomial logistic models

Ji Hyun Bak, Jonathan Pillow

P81 Inferring low-dimensional network dynamics with variational latent Gaussian process

Yuan Zaho, Il Memming Park

P82 Computational investigation of energy landscapes in the resting state subcortical brain network

Jiyoung Kang, Hae-Jeong Park

P83 Local repulsive interaction between retinal ganglion cells can generate a consistent spatial periodicity of orientation map

Jaeson Jang, Se-Bum Paik

P84 Phase duration of bistable perception reveals intrinsic time scale of perceptual decision under noisy condition

Woochul Choi, Se-Bum Paik

P85 Feedforward convergence between retina and primary visual cortex can determine the structure of orientation map

Changju Lee, Jaeson Jang, Se-Bum Paik

P86 Computational method classifying neural network activity patterns for imaging data

Min Song, Hyeonsu Lee, Se-Bum Paik

P87 Symmetry of spike-timing-dependent-plasticity kernels regulates volatility of memory

Youngjin Park, Woochul Choi, Se-Bum Paik

P88 Effects of time-periodic coupling strength on the first-spike latency dynamics of a scale-free network of stochastic Hodgkin-Huxley neurons

Ergin Yilmaz, Veli Baysal, Mahmut Ozer

P89 Spectral properties of spiking responses in V1 and V4 change within the trial and are highly relevant for behavioral performance

Veronika Koren, Klaus Obermayer

P90 Methods for building accurate models of individual neurons

Daniel Saska, Thomas Nowotny

P91 A full size mathematical model of the early olfactory system of honeybees

Ho Ka Chan, Alan Diamond, Thomas Nowotny

P92 Stimulation-induced tuning of ongoing oscillations in spiking neural networks

Christoph S. Herrmann, Micah M. Murray, Silvio Ionta, Axel Hutt, Jérémie Lefebvre

P93 Decision-specific sequences of neural activity in balanced random networks driven by structured sensory input

Philipp Weidel, Renato Duarte, Abigail Morrison

P94 Modulation of tuning induced by abrupt reduction of SST cell activity

Jung H. Lee, Ramakrishnan Iyer, Stefan Mihalas

P95 The functional role of VIP cell activation during locomotion

Jung H. Lee, Ramakrishnan Iyer, Christof Koch, Stefan Mihalas

P96 Stochastic inference with spiking neural networks

Mihai A. Petrovici, Luziwei Leng, Oliver Breitwieser, David Stöckel, Ilja Bytschok, Roman Martel, Johannes Bill, Johannes Schemmel, Karlheinz Meier

P97 Modeling orientation-selective electrical stimulation with retinal prostheses

Timothy B. Esler, Anthony N. Burkitt, David B. Grayden, Robert R. Kerr, Bahman Tahayori, Hamish Meffin

P98 Ion channel noise can explain firing correlation in auditory nerves

Bahar Moezzi, Nicolangelo Iannella, Mark D. McDonnell

P99 Limits of temporal encoding of thalamocortical inputs in a neocortical microcircuit

Max Nolte, Michael W. Reimann, Eilif Muller, Henry Markram

P100 On the representation of arm reaching movements: a computational model

Antonio Parziale, Rosa Senatore, Angelo Marcelli

P101 A computational model for investigating the role of cerebellum in acquisition and retention of motor behavior

Rosa Senatore, Antonio Parziale, Angelo Marcelli

P102 The emergence of semantic categories from a large-scale brain network of semantic knowledge

K. Skiker, M. Maouene

P103 Multiscale modeling of M1 multitarget pharmacotherapy for dystonia

Samuel A. Neymotin, Salvador Dura-Bernal, Alexandra Seidenstein, Peter Lakatos, Terence D. Sanger, William W. Lytton

P104 Effect of network size on computational capacity

Salvador Dura-Bernal, Rosemary J. Menzies, Campbell McLauchlan, Sacha J. van Albada, David J. Kedziora, Samuel Neymotin, William W. Lytton, Cliff C. Kerr

P105 NetPyNE: a Python package for NEURON to facilitate development and parallel simulation of biological neuronal networks

Salvador Dura-Bernal, Benjamin A. Suter, Samuel A. Neymotin, Cliff C. Kerr, Adrian Quintana, Padraig Gleeson, Gordon M. G. Shepherd, William W. Lytton

P107 Inter-areal and inter-regional inhomogeneity in co-axial anisotropy of Cortical Point Spread in human visual areas

Juhyoung Ryu, Sang-Hun Lee

P108 Two bayesian quanta of uncertainty explain the temporal dynamics of cortical activity in the non-sensory areas during bistable perception

Joonwon Lee, Sang-Hun Lee

P109 Optimal and suboptimal integration of sensory and value information in perceptual decision making

Hyang Jung Lee, Sang-Hun Lee

P110 A Bayesian algorithm for phoneme Perception and its neural implementation

Daeseob Lim, Sang-Hun Lee

P111 Complexity of EEG signals is reduced during unconsciousness induced by ketamine and propofol

Jisung Wang, Heonsoo Lee

P112 Self-organized criticality of neural avalanche in a neural model on complex networks

Nam Jung, Le Anh Quang, Seung Eun Maeng, Tae Ho Lee, Jae Woo Lee

P113 Dynamic alterations in connection topology of the hippocampal network during ictal-like epileptiform activity in an in vitro rat model

Chang-hyun Park, Sora Ahn, Jangsup Moon, Yun Seo Choi, Juhee Kim, Sang Beom Jun, Seungjun Lee, Hyang Woon Lee

P114 Computational model to replicate seizure suppression effect by electrical stimulation

Sora Ahn, Sumin Jo, Eunji Jun, Suin Yu, Hyang Woon Lee, Sang Beom Jun, Seungjun Lee

P115 Identifying excitatory and inhibitory synapses in neuronal networks from spike trains using sorted local transfer entropy

Felix Goetze, Pik-Yin Lai

P116 Neural network model for obstacle avoidance based on neuromorphic computational model of boundary vector cell and head direction cell

Seonghyun Kim, Jeehyun Kwag

P117 Dynamic gating of spike pattern propagation by Hebbian and anti-Hebbian spike timing-dependent plasticity in excitatory feedforward network model

Hyun Jae Jang, Jeehyun Kwag

P118 Inferring characteristics of input correlations of cells exhibiting up-down state transitions in the rat striatum

Marko Filipović, Ramon Reig, Ad Aertsen, Gilad Silberberg, Arvind Kumar

P119 Graph properties of the functional connected brain under the influence of Alzheimer’s disease

Claudia Bachmann, Simone Buttler, Heidi Jacobs, Kim Dillen, Gereon R. Fink, Juraj Kukolja, Abigail Morrison

P120 Learning sparse representations in the olfactory bulb

Daniel Kepple, Hamza Giaffar, Dima Rinberg, Steven Shea, Alex Koulakov

P121 Functional classification of homologous basal-ganglia networks

Jyotika Bahuguna,Tom Tetzlaff, Abigail Morrison, Arvind Kumar, Jeanette Hellgren Kotaleski

P122 Short term memory based on multistability

Tim Kunze, Andre Peterson, Thomas Knösche

P123 A physiologically plausible, computationally efficient model and simulation software for mammalian motor units

Minjung Kim, Hojeong Kim

P125 Decoding laser-induced somatosensory information from EEG

Ji Sung Park, Ji Won Yeon, Sung-Phil Kim

P126 Phase synchronization of alpha activity for EEG-based personal authentication

Jae-Hwan Kang, Chungho Lee, Sung-Phil Kim

P129 Investigating phase-lags in sEEG data using spatially distributed time delays in a large-scale brain network model

Andreas Spiegler, Spase Petkoski, Matias J. Palva, Viktor K. Jirsa

P130 Epileptic seizures in the unfolding of a codimension-3 singularity

Maria L. Saggio, Silvan F. Siep, Andreas Spiegler, William C. Stacey, Christophe Bernard, Viktor K. Jirsa

P131 Incremental dimensional exploratory reasoning under multi-dimensional environment

Oh-hyeon Choung, Yong Jeong

P132 A low-cost model of eye movements and memory in personal visual cognition

Yong-il Lee, Jaeseung Jeong

P133 Complex network analysis of structural connectome of autism spectrum disorder patients

Su Hyun Kim, Mir Jeong, Jaeseung Jeong

P134 Cognitive motives and the neural correlates underlying human social information transmission, gossip

Jeungmin Lee, Jaehyung Kwon, Jerald D. Kralik, Jaeseung Jeong

P135 EEG hyperscanning detects neural oscillation for the social interaction during the economic decision-making

Jaehwan Jahng, Dong-Uk Hwang, Jaeseung Jeong

P136 Detecting purchase decision based on hyperfrontality of the EEG

Jae-Hyung Kwon, Sang-Min Park, Jaeseung Jeong

P137 Vulnerability-based critical neurons, synapses, and pathways in the Caenorhabditis elegans connectome

Seongkyun Kim, Hyoungkyu Kim, Jerald D. Kralik, Jaeseung Jeong

P138 Motif analysis reveals functionally asymmetrical neurons in C. elegans

Pyeong Soo Kim, Seongkyun Kim, Hyoungkyu Kim, Jaeseung Jeong

P139 Computational approach to preference-based serial decision dynamics: do temporal discounting and working memory affect it?

Sangsup Yoon, Jaehyung Kwon, Sewoong Lim, Jaeseung Jeong

P141 Social stress induced neural network reconfiguration affects decision making and learning in zebrafish

Choongseok Park, Thomas Miller, Katie Clements, Sungwoo Ahn, Eoon Hye Ji, Fadi A. Issa

P142 Descriptive, generative, and hybrid approaches for neural connectivity inference from neural activity data

JeongHun Baek, Shigeyuki Oba, Junichiro Yoshimoto, Kenji Doya, Shin Ishii

P145 Divergent-convergent synaptic connectivities accelerate coding in multilayered sensory systems

Thiago S. Mosqueiro, Martin F. Strube-Bloss, Brian Smith, Ramon Huerta

P146 Swinging networks

Michal Hadrava, Jaroslav Hlinka

P147 Inferring dynamically relevant motifs from oscillatory stimuli: challenges, pitfalls, and solutions

Hannah Bos, Moritz Helias

P148 Spatiotemporal mapping of brain network dynamics during cognitive tasks using magnetoencephalography and deep learning

Charles M. Welzig, Zachary J. Harper

P149 Multiscale complexity analysis for the segmentation of MRI images

Won Sup Kim, In-Seob Shin, Hyeon-Man Baek, Seung Kee Han

P150 A neuro-computational model of emotional attention

René Richter, Julien Vitay, Frederick Beuth, Fred H. Hamker

P151 Multi-site delayed feedback stimulation in parkinsonian networks

Kelly Toppin, Yixin Guo

P152 Bistability in Hodgkin–Huxley-type equations

Tatiana Kameneva, Hamish Meffin, Anthony N. Burkitt, David B. Grayden

P153 Phase changes in postsynaptic spiking due to synaptic connectivity and short term plasticity: mathematical analysis of frequency dependency

Mark D. McDonnell, Bruce P. Graham

P154 Quantifying resilience patterns in brain networks: the importance of directionality

Penelope J. Kale, Leonardo L. Gollo

P155 Dynamics of rate-model networks with separate excitatory and inhibitory populations

Merav Stern, L. F. Abbott

P156 A model for multi-stable dynamics in action recognition modulated by integration of silhouette and shading cues

Leonid A. Fedorov, Martin A. Giese

P157 Spiking model for the interaction between action recognition and action execution

Mohammad Hovaidi Ardestani, Martin Giese

P158 Surprise-modulated belief update: how to learn within changing environments?

Mohammad Javad Faraji, Kerstin Preuschoff, Wulfram Gerstner

P159 A fast, stochastic and adaptive model of auditory nerve responses to cochlear implant stimulation

Margriet J. van Gendt, Jeroen J. Briaire, Randy K. Kalkman, Johan H. M. Frijns

P160 Quantitative comparison of graph theoretical measures of simulated and empirical functional brain networks

Won Hee Lee, Sophia Frangou

P161 Determining discriminative properties of fMRI signals in schizophrenia using highly comparative time-series analysis

Ben D. Fulcher, Patricia H. P. Tran, Alex Fornito

P162 Emergence of narrowband LFP oscillations from completely asynchronous activity during seizures and high-frequency oscillations

Stephen V. Gliske, William C. Stacey, Eugene Lim, Katherine A. Holman, Christian G. Fink

P163 Neuronal diversity in structure and function: cross-validation of anatomical and physiological classification of retinal ganglion cells in the mouse

Jinseop S. Kim, Shang Mu, Kevin L. Briggman, H. Sebastian Seung, the EyeWirers

P164 Analysis and modelling of transient firing rate changes in area MT in response to rapid stimulus feature changes

Detlef Wegener, Lisa Bohnenkamp, Udo A. Ernst

P165 Step-wise model fitting accounting for high-resolution spatial measurements: construction of a layer V pyramidal cell model with reduced morphology

Tuomo Mäki-Marttunen, Geir Halnes, Anna Devor, Christoph Metzner, Anders M. Dale, Ole A. Andreassen, Gaute T. Einevoll

P166 Contributions of schizophrenia-associated genes to neuron firing and cardiac pacemaking: a polygenic modeling approach

Tuomo Mäki-Marttunen, Glenn T. Lines, Andy Edwards, Aslak Tveito, Anders M. Dale, Gaute T. Einevoll, Ole A. Andreassen

P167 Local field potentials in a 4 × 4 mm2 multi-layered network model

Espen Hagen, Johanna Senk, Sacha J. van Albada, Markus Diesmann

P168 A spiking network model explains multi-scale properties of cortical dynamics

Maximilian Schmidt, Rembrandt Bakker, Kelly Shen, Gleb Bezgin, Claus-Christian Hilgetag, Markus Diesmann, Sacha Jennifer van Albada

P169 Using joint weight-delay spike-timing dependent plasticity to find polychronous neuronal groups

Haoqi Sun, Olga Sourina, Guang-Bin Huang, Felix Klanner, Cornelia Denk

P170 Tensor decomposition reveals RSNs in simulated resting state fMRI

Katharina Glomb, Adrián Ponce-Alvarez, Matthieu Gilson, Petra Ritter, Gustavo Deco

P171 Getting in the groove: testing a new model-based method for comparing task-evoked vs resting-state activity in fMRI data on music listening

Matthieu Gilson, Maria AG Witek, Eric F. Clarke, Mads Hansen, Mikkel Wallentin, Gustavo Deco, Morten L. Kringelbach, Peter Vuust

P172 STochastic engine for pathway simulation (STEPS) on massively parallel processors

Guido Klingbeil, Erik De Schutter

P173 Toolkit support for complex parallel spatial stochastic reaction–diffusion simulation in STEPS

Weiliang Chen, Erik De Schutter

P174 Modeling the generation and propagation of Purkinje cell dendritic spikes caused by parallel fiber synaptic input

Yunliang Zang, Erik De Schutter

P175 Dendritic morphology determines how dendrites are organized into functional subunits

Sungho Hong, Akira Takashima, Erik De Schutter

P176 A model of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II activity in long term depression at Purkinje cells

Criseida Zamora, Andrew R. Gallimore, Erik De Schutter

P177 Reward-modulated learning of population-encoded vectors for insect-like navigation in embodied agents

Dennis Goldschmidt, Poramate Manoonpong, Sakyasingha Dasgupta

P178 Data-driven neural models part II: connectivity patterns of human seizures

Philippa J. Karoly, Dean R. Freestone, Daniel Soundry, Levin Kuhlmann, Liam Paninski, Mark Cook

P179 Data-driven neural models part I: state and parameter estimation

Dean R. Freestone, Philippa J. Karoly, Daniel Soundry, Levin Kuhlmann, Mark Cook

P180 Spectral and spatial information processing in human auditory streaming

Jaejin Lee, Yonatan I. Fishman, Yale E. Cohen

P181 A tuning curve for the global effects of local perturbations in neural activity: Mapping the systems-level susceptibility of the brain

Leonardo L. Gollo, James A. Roberts, Luca Cocchi

P182 Diverse homeostatic responses to visual deprivation mediated by neural ensembles

Yann Sweeney, Claudia Clopath

P183 Opto-EEG: a novel method for investigating functional connectome in mouse brain based on optogenetics and high density electroencephalography

Soohyun Lee, Woo-Sung Jung, Jee Hyun Choi

P184 Biphasic responses of frontal gamma network to repetitive sleep deprivation during REM sleep

Bowon Kim, Youngsoo Kim, Eunjin Hwang, Jee Hyun Choi

P185 Brain-state correlate and cortical connectivity for frontal gamma oscillations in top-down fashion assessed by auditory steady-state response

Younginha Jung, Eunjin Hwang, Yoon-Kyu Song, Jee Hyun Choi

P186 Neural field model of localized orientation selective activation in V1

James Rankin, Frédéric Chavane

P187 An oscillatory network model of Head direction and Grid cells using locomotor inputs

Karthik Soman, Vignesh Muralidharan, V. Srinivasa Chakravarthy

P188 A computational model of hippocampus inspired by the functional architecture of basal ganglia

Karthik Soman, Vignesh Muralidharan, V. Srinivasa Chakravarthy

P189 A computational architecture to model the microanatomy of the striatum and its functional properties

Sabyasachi Shivkumar, Vignesh Muralidharan, V. Srinivasa Chakravarthy

P190 A scalable cortico-basal ganglia model to understand the neural dynamics of targeted reaching

Vignesh Muralidharan, Alekhya Mandali, B. Pragathi Priyadharsini, Hima Mehta, V. Srinivasa Chakravarthy

P191 Emergence of radial orientation selectivity from synaptic plasticity

Catherine E. Davey, David B. Grayden, Anthony N. Burkitt

P192 How do hidden units shape effective connections between neurons?

Braden A. W. Brinkman, Tyler Kekona, Fred Rieke, Eric Shea-Brown, Michael Buice

P193 Characterization of neural firing in the presence of astrocyte-synapse signaling

Maurizio De Pittà, Hugues Berry, Nicolas Brunel

P194 Metastability of spatiotemporal patterns in a large-scale network model of brain dynamics

James A. Roberts, Leonardo L. Gollo, Michael Breakspear

P195 Comparison of three methods to quantify detection and discrimination capacity estimated from neural population recordings

Gary Marsat, Jordan Drew, Phillip D. Chapman, Kevin C. Daly, Samual P. Bradley

P196 Quantifying the constraints for independent evoked and spontaneous NMDA receptor mediated synaptic transmission at individual synapses

Sat Byul Seo, Jianzhong Su, Ege T. Kavalali, Justin Blackwell

P199 Gamma oscillation via adaptive exponential integrate-and-fire neurons

LieJune Shiau, Laure Buhry, Kanishka Basnayake

P200 Visual face representations during memory retrieval compared to perception

Sue-Hyun Lee, Brandon A. Levy, Chris I. Baker

P201 Top-down modulation of sequential activity within packets modeled using avalanche dynamics

Timothée Leleu, Kazuyuki Aihara

Q28 An auto-encoder network realizes sparse features under the influence of desynchronized vascular dynamics

Ryan T. Philips, Karishma Chhabria, V. Srinivasa Chakravarthy

A1 Functional advantages of cell-type heterogeneity in neural circuits

Tatyana O. Sharpee1

1Computational Neurobiology Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, San Diego, CA, USA

Correspondence: Tatyana O. Sharpee -

BMC Neuroscience 2016, 17(Suppl 1):A1

Neural circuits are notorious for the complexity of their organization. Part of this complexity is related to the number of different cell types that work together to encode stimuli. I will discuss theoretical results that point to functional advantages of splitting neural populations into subtypes, both in feedforward and recurrent networks. These results outline a framework for categorizing neuronal types based on their functional properties. Such classification scheme could augment classification schemes based on molecular, anatomical, and electrophysiological properties.

A2 Mesoscopic modeling of propagating waves in visual cortex

Alain Destexhe1,2

1UNIC, CNRS, Gif sur Yvette, France; 2The European Institute for Theoretical Neuroscience (EITN), Paris, France

Correspondence: Alain Destexhe -

BMC Neuroscience 2016, 17(Suppl 1):A2

Propagating waves are large-scale phenomena widely seen in the nervous system, in both anesthetized and awake or sleeping states. Recently, the presence of propagating waves at the scale of microns–millimeters was demonstrated in the primary visual cortex (V1) of macaque monkey. Using a combination of voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) imaging in awake monkey V1 and model-based analysis, we showed that virtually every visual input is followed by a propagating wave (Muller et al., Nat Comm 2014). The wave was confined within V1, and was consistent and repeatable for a given input. Interestingly, two propagating waves always interact in a suppressive fashion, and sum sublinearly. This is in agreement with the general suppressive effect seen in other circumstances in V1 (Bair et al., J Neurosci 2003; Reynaud et al., J Neurosci 2012).

To investigate possible mechanisms for this suppression we have designed mean-field models to directly integrate the VSD experiments. Because the VSD signal is primarily caused by the summed voltage of all membranes, it represents an ideal case for mean-field models. However, usual mean-field models are based on neuronal transfer functions such as the well-known sigmoid function, or functions estimated from very simple models. Any error in the transfer function may result in wrong predictions by the corresponding mean-field model. To palliate this caveat, we have obtained semi-analytic forms of the transfer function of more realistic neuron models. We found that the same mathematical template can capture the transfer function for models such as the integrate-and-fire (IF) model, the adaptive exponential (AdEx) model, up to Hodgkin–Huxley (HH) type models, all with conductance-based inputs.

Using these transfer functions we have built “realistic” mean-field models for networks with two populations of neurons, the regular-spiking (RS) excitatory neurons, showing spike frequency adaptation, and the fast-spiking (FS) inhibitory neurons. This mean-field model can reproduce the propagating waves in V1, due to horizontal interactions, as shown previously using IF networks. This mean-field model also reproduced the suppressive interactions between propagating waves. The mechanism of suppression was based on the preferential recruitment of inhibitory cells over excitatory cells by afferent activity, which acted through the conductance-based shunting effect of the two waves onto one another. The suppression was negligible in networks with identical models for excitatory and inhibitory cells (such as IF networks). This suggests that the suppressive effect is a general phenomenon due to the higher excitability of inhibitory neurons in cortex, in line with previous models (Ozeki et al., Neuron 2009).

Work done in collaboration with Yann Zerlaut (UNIC) for modeling, Sandrine Chemla and Frederic Chavane (CNRS, Marseille) for in vivo experiments. Supported by CNRS and the European Commission (Human Brain Project).

A3 Dynamics and biomarkers of mental disorders

Mitsuo Kawato1

1ATR Computational Neuroscience Laboratories, 2-2 Hikaridai, Seika-cho, Soraku-gun, Kyoto 619-0288, Japan

Correspondence: Mitsuo Kawato -

BMC Neuroscience 2016, 17(Suppl 1):A3

Current diagnoses of mental disorders are made in a categorical way, as exemplified by DSM-5, but many difficulties have been encountered in such categorical regimes: the high percentage of comorbidities, usage of the same drug for multiple disorders, the lack of any validated animal model, and the situation where no epoch-making drug has been developed in the past 30 years. NIMH started RDoC (research domain criterion) to overcome these problems [1], and some successful results have been obtained, including common genetic risk loci [2] and common neuroanatomical changes for multiple disorders [3] as well as psychosis biotypes [4].

In contrast to the currently dominant molecular biology approach, which basically assumes one-to-one mapping between genes and disorders, I postulate the following dynamics-based view of psychiatric disorders. Our brain is a nonlinear dynamical system that can generate spontaneous spatiotemporal activities. The dynamical system is characterized by multiple stable attractors, only one of which corresponds to a healthy or typically developed state. The others are pathological states.

The most promising research approach within the above dynamical view is to combine resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, machine learning, big data, and sophisticated neurofeedback. Yahata et al. developed an ASD biomarker using only 16/9730 functional connections, and it did not generalize to MDD or ADHD but moderately to schizophrenia [5]. Yamashita’s regression model of working memory ability from functional connections [6] generalized to schizophrenia and reproduced the severity of working-memory deficits of four psychiatric disorders (in preparation).

With the further development of machine learning algorithms and accumulation of reliable datasets, we hope to obtain a comprehensive landscape of many psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders. Guided by this full-spectrum structure, a tailor-made neurofeedback therapy should be optimized for each patient [7].


  1. 1.

    Insel T, Cuthbert B, Garvey M., et al. Research domain criteria (RDoC): toward a new classification framework for research on mental disorders. Am J Psychiatry. 2010;167:748–51.

  2. 2.

    Cross-disorder group of the psychiatric genomics consortium: identification of risk loci with shared effects on five major psychiatric disorders: a genome-wide analysis. Lancet. 2013;381:1371–9.

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    Goodkind M, et al. Identification of a common neurobiological substrate for mental illness. JAMA Psychiatry. 2015;72:305–15.

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    Clementz BA, et al. Identification of distinct psychosis biotypes using brain-based biomarkers. Am J Psychiatry. 2016;173:373–84.

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    Yahata N, Morimoto J, Hashimoto R, Lisi G, Shibata K, Kawakubo Y, Kuwabara H, Kuroda M, Yamada T, Megumi F, Imamizu H, Nanez JE, Takahashi H, Okamoto Y, Kasai K, Kato N, Sasaki Y, Watanabe T, Kawato M: A small number of abnormal brain connections predicts adult autism spectrum disorder. Nature Commun. 2016;7:11254. doi:10.1038/ncomms11254.

  6. 6.

    Yamashita M, Kawato M, Imamizu H. Predicting learning plateau of working memory from whole-brain intrinsic network connectivity patterns. Sci Rep. 2015;5(7622). doi:10.1038/srep07622.

  7. 7.

    ATR Brain Information Communication Research Laboratory Group. DecNef 
Project. Available at (2016).

F1 Precise recruitment of spiking output at theta frequencies requires dendritic h-channels in multi-compartment models of oriens-lacunosum/moleculare hippocampal interneurons

Vladislav Sekulić1,2, Frances K. Skinner1,2,3

1Krembil Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5T 2S8; 2Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5S 1A8; 3 Department of Medicine (Neurology), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5T 2S8

Correspondence: Vladislav Sekulić -

BMC Neuroscience 2016, 17(Suppl 1):F1

The theta rhythm (4–12 Hz) is a prominent network oscillation observed in the mammalian hippocampus and is correlated with spatial navigation and mnemonic processing. Inhibitory interneurons of the hippocampus fire action potentials at specific phases of the theta rhythm, pointing to distinct functional roles of interneurons in shaping this rhythmic activity. One hippocampal interneuron type, the oriens-lacunosum/moleculare (O-LM) cell, provides direct feedback inhibition and regulation of pyramidal cell activity in the CA1 region. O-LM cells express the hyperpolarization-activated, mixed-cation current (I h) and, in vitro, demonstrate spontaneous firing at theta that is impaired upon blockade of I h. Work using dynamic clamp has shown that in the presence of frequency-modulated artificial synaptic inputs, O-LM cells exhibit a spiking resonance at theta frequencies that is not dependent on I h [1]. However, due to the somatic injection limitation of dynamic clamp, the study could not examine the potential contributions of putative dendritic I h or the integration of dendritically-located synaptic inputs. To overcome this, we have used a database of previously developed multi-compartment computational models of O-LM cells [2].

We situated our OLM cell models in an in vivo-like context by injecting Poisson-based synaptic background activities throughout their dendritic arbors. Excitatory and inhibitory synaptic weights were tuned to produce similar baseline activity prior to modulation of the inhibitory synaptic process at various frequencies (2–30 Hz). We found that models with dendritic inputs expressed enhanced resonant firing at theta frequencies compared to models with somatic inputs. We then performed detailed analyses on the outputs of the models with dendritic inputs to further elucidate these results with respect to I h distributions. The ability of the models to be recruited at the modulated input frequencies was quantified using the rotation number, or average number of spikes across all input cycles. Models with somatodendritic I h were recruited at >50 % of the input cycles for a wider range of theta frequencies (3–9 Hz) compared to models with somatic I h only (3–4 Hz). Models with somatodendritic I h also exhibited a wider range of theta frequencies for which phase-locked output (vector strength >0.75) was observed (4–12 Hz), compared to models with somatic I h (3–5 Hz). Finally, the phase of firing of models with somatodendritic I h given 8–10 Hz modulated input was delayed 180–230° relative to the time of release from inhibitory synaptic input.

O-LM cells receive phasic inhibitory inputs at theta frequencies from a subpopulation of parvalbumin-positive GABAergic interneurons in the medial septum (MS) timed to the peak of hippocampal theta, as measured in the stratum pyramidale layer [3]. Furthermore, O-LM cells fire at the trough of hippocampal pyramidal layer theta in vivo [4], an approximate 180˚ phase delay from the MS inputs, corresponding to the phase delay in our models with somatodendritic I h. Our results suggest that, given dendritic synaptic inputs, O-LM cells require somatodendritic I h channel expression to be precisely recruited during the trough of hippocampal theta activity. Our strategy of leveraging model databases that encompass experimental cell type-specificity and variability allowed us to reveal critical biophysical factors that contribute to neuronal function within in vivo-like contexts.

Acknowledgements: Supported by NSERC of Canada, an Ontario Graduate Scholarship, and the SciNet HPC Consortium.


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    Kispersky TJ, Fernandez FR, Economo MN, White JA. Spike resonance properties in hippocampal O-LM cells are dependent on refractory dynamics. J Neurosci. 2012;32(11):3637–51.

  2. 2.

    Sekulić V, Lawrence JJ, Skinner FK. Using multi-compartment ensemble modeling as an investigative tool of spatially distributed biophysical balances: application to hippocampal oriens-lacunosum/moleculare (O-LM) cells. PLOS One. 2014;9(10):e106567.

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    Borhegyi Z, Varga V, Szilágyi, Fabo D, Freund TF. Phase segregation of medial septal GABAergic neurons during hippocampal theta activity. J Neurosci. 2004;24(39):8470–9.

  4. 4.

    Varga C, Golshani P, Soltesz I. Frequency-invariant temporal ordering of interneuronal discharges during hippocampal oscillations in awake mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2012;109(40):E2726–34.

F2 Kernel methods in reconstruction of current sources from extracellular potentials for single cells and the whole brains

Daniel K. Wójcik1, Chaitanya Chintaluri1, Dorottya Cserpán2, Zoltán Somogyvári2

1Department of Neurophysiology, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Warsaw, Poland; 2Department of Theory, Wigner Research Centre for Physics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, H-1121, Hungary

Correspondence: Daniel K. Wójcik -

BMC Neuroscience 2016, 17(Suppl 1):F2

Extracellular recordings of electric potential, with a century old history, remain a popular tool for investigations of brain activity on all scales, from single neurons, through populations, to the whole brains, in animals and humans, in vitro and in vivo [1]. The specific information available in the recording depends on the physical settings of the system (brain + electrode). Smaller electrodes are usually more selective and are used to capture local information (spikes from single cells or LFP from populations) while larger electrodes are used for subdural recordings (on the cortex, ECoG), on the scalp (EEG) but also as depth electrodes in humans (called SEEG). The advantages of extracellular electric potential are the ease of recording and its stability. Its problem is interpretation: since electric field is long range one can observe neural activity several millimeters from its source [2–4]. As a consequence every recording reflects activity of many cells, populations and regions, depending on which level we focus. One way to overcome this problem is to reconstruct the distribution of current sources (CSD) underlying the measurement [5], typically done to identify activity on systems level from multiple LFP on regular grids [6].

We recently proposed a kernel-based method of CSD estimation from multiple LFP recordings from arbitrarily placed probes (i.e. not necessarily on a grid) which we called kernel Current Source Density method (kCSD) [7]. In this overview we present the original proposition as well as two recent developments, skCSD (single cell kCSD) and kESI (kernel Electrophysiological Source Imaging). skCSD assumes that we know which part of the recorded signal comes from a given cell and we have access to the morphology of the cell. This could be achieved by patching a cell, driving it externally while recording the potential on a multielectrode array, injecting a dye, and reconstructing the morphology. In this case we know that the sources must be located on the cell and this information can be successfully used in estimation. In kESI we consider simultaneous recordings with subdural ECoG (strip and grid electrodes) and with depth electrodes (SEEG). Such recordings are taken on some epileptic patients prepared for surgical removal of epileptogenic zone. When MR scan of the patient head is taken and the positions of the electrodes are known as well as the brain’s shape, the idea of kCSD can be used to bound the possible distribution of sources facilitating localization of the foci.

Acknowledgements: Polish Ministry for Science and Higher Education (grant 2948/7.PR/2013/2), Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (Grant OTKA K113147), National Science Centre, Poland (Grant 2015/17/B/ST7/04123).


  1. 1.

    Buzsáki G, Anastassiou CA, Koch C. The origin of extracellular fields and currents—EEG, ECoG, LFP and spikes. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2012;13:407–20.

  2. 2.

    Hunt MJ, Falinska M, Łęski S, Wójcik DK, Kasicki S. Differential effects produced by ketamine on oscillatory activity recorded in the rat hippocampus, dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens. J Psychopharmacol. 2011;25:808–21.

  3. 3.

    Lindén H, Tetzlaff T, Potjans TC, Pettersen KH, Gruen S, Diesmann M, Einevoll GT. Modeling the spatial reach of the LFP. Neuron. 2011;72:859–72..

  4. 4.

    Łęski S, Lindén H, Tetzlaff T, Pettersen KH, Einevoll GT. Frequency dependence of signal power and spatial reach of the local field potential. PLoS Comput Biol. 2013;9:e1003137.

  5. 5.

    Wójcik DK. Current source density (CSD) analysis. In: Jaeger D, Jung R, editors. Encyclopedia of computational neuroscience. SpringerReference. Berlin: Springer; 2013.

  6. 6.

    Mitzdorf U. Current source-density method and application in cat cerebral cortex: investigation of evoked potentials and EEG phenomena. Physiol Rev. 1985;65:37–100.

  7. 7.

    Potworowski J, Jakuczun W, Łęski S, Wójcik DK. Kernel current source density method. Neural Comput. 2012;24:541–75.

F3 The synchronized periods depend on intracellular transcriptional repression mechanisms in circadian clocks

Jae Kyoung Kim1, Zachary P. Kilpatrick2, Matthew R. Bennett3, Kresimir Josić2,4

1Department of Mathematical Sciences, KAIST, Daejoen 34141, Republic of Korea; 2Department of Mathematics, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77004, USA; 3Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology and Institute of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005, USA; 4Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77004, USA

Correspondence: Jae Kyoung Kim -

BMC Neuroscience 2016, 17(Suppl 1):F2

In mammals, circadian (~24 h) rhythms are mainly regulated by a master circadian clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) [1]. The SCN consists of ~20,000 neurons, each of which generates own rhythms via intracellular transcriptional negative feedback loop involving PER-CRY and BMAL1-CLOCK. These individual rhythms of each neuron are synchronized through intercellular coupling via neurotransmitters including VIP [2]. In this talk, I will discuss that the synchronized periods via coupling signal strongly depend on the mechanism of intracellular transcription repression [3–4]. Specifically, using mathematical modeling and phase response curve analysis, we find that the synchronized period of SCN stays close to the population mean of cells’ intrinsic periods (~24 h) if transcriptional repression occurs via protein sequestration. However, the synchronized period is far from the population mean when repression occurs via Hill-type regulation (e.g. phosphorylation-based repression). These results reveal the novel relationship between two major functions of the SCN-intracellular rhythm generation and intercellular synchronization of rhythms. Furthermore, this relationship provides an explanation for why the protein sequestration is commonly used in circadian clocks of multicellular organisms, which have a coupled master clock, but not in unicellular organisms [4].

Acknowledgements: This work was funded by the National Institutes of Health, through the joint National Science Foundation/National Institute of General Medical Sciences Mathematical Biology Program grant No. R01GM104974 (to M.R.B. and K.J.), National Science Foundation grants Nos. DMS-1311755 (to Z.P.K.) and DMS-1122094 (to K.J.), the Robert A. Welch Foundation grant No. C-1729 (to M.R.B.), National Science Foundation grant No. DMS-0931642 to the Mathematical Biosciences Institute (to J.K.K.), KAIST Research Allowance Grant G04150020 (to J.K.K) and the TJ Park Science Fellowship of POSCO TJ Park Foundation G01160001 (to J.K.K).


  1. 1.

    Dibner C, Schibler U, Albrecht U. The mammalian circadian timing system: organization and coordination of central and peripheral clocks. Annu Rev Physiol. 2010;72:517–49.

  2. 2.

    Welsh DK, Takahashi JS, Kay SA. Suprachiasmatic nucleus: cell autonomy and network properties. Annu Rev Physiol. 2010;72:551.

  3. 3.

    Kim JK, Kilpatrick ZP, Bennett MR, Josić K. Molecular mechanisms that regulate the coupled period of the mammalian circadian clock. Biophys J. 2014;106(9):2071–81.

  4. 4.

    Kim JK. Protein sequestration vs Hill-type repression in circadian clock models (in revision).

O1 Assessing irregularity and coordination of spiking-bursting rhythms in central pattern generators

Irene Elices1, David Arroyo1, Rafael Levi1,2, Francisco B. Rodriguez1, Pablo Varona1

1Grupo de Neurocomputación Biológica, Dpto. de Ingeniería Informática, Escuela Politécnica Superior, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain; 2Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern California, CA, USA

Correspondence: Irene Elices -

BMC Neuroscience 2016, 17(Suppl 1):O1

Found in all nervous systems, central pattern generators (CPGs) are neural circuits that produce flexible rhythmic motor patterns. Their robust and highly coordinated spatio-temporal activity is generated in the absence of rhythmic input. Several invertebrate CPGs are among the best known neural circuits, as their neurons and connections have been identified and mapped. The crustacean pyloric CPG is one of these flagship neural networks [1, 2]. Experimental and computational studies of CPGs typically examine their rhythmic output in periodic spiking-bursting regimes. Aiming to understand the fast rhythm negotiation of CPG neurons, here we present experimental and theoretical analyses of the pyloric CPG activity in situations where irregular yet coordinated rhythms are produced. In particular, we focus our study in the context of two sources of rhythm irregularity: intrinsic damage in the preparation, and irregularity induced by ethanol. The analysis of non-periodic regimes can unveil important properties of the robust dynamics controlling rhythm coordination in this system.

Adult male and female shore crabs (Carcinus maenas) were used for the experimental recordings. The isolated stomatrogastric ganglion was kept in Carcinus maenas saline. Membrane potentials were recorded intracellularly from the LP and PD cells, two mutually inhibitory neurons that form a half-center oscillator in the pyloric CPG. Extracellular electrodes allowed monitoring the overall CPG rhythm. Conductance-based models of the pyloric CPG neurons and their associated graded synapses as described in [3, 4] were also used in this dual experimental and theoretical study.

Irregularity and coordination of the CPG rhythms were analyzed using measures characterizing the cells’ instantaneous waveform, period, duty cycle, plateau, hyperpolarization and temporal structure of the spiking activity, as well as measures describing instantaneous phases among neurons in the irregular rhythms and their variability. Our results illustrate the strong robustness of the circuit to keep LP/PD phase relationships in intrinsic and induced irregularity conditions while allowing a large variety of burst waveforms, durations and hyperpolarization periods in these neurons. In spite of being electrically coupled to the pacemaker cell of the circuit, the PD neurons showed a wide flexibility to participate with larger burst durations in the CPG rhythm (and larger increase in variability), while the LP neuron was more restricted in sustaining long bursts in the conditions analyzed. The conductance-based models were used to explain the role of asymmetry in the dynamics of the neurons and synapses to shape the irregular activity observed experimentally. Taking into account the overall experimental and model analyses, we discuss the presence of preserved relationships in the non-periodic but coordinated bursting activity of the pyloric CPG, and their role in the fast rhythm negotiating properties of this circuit.

Acknowledgements: We acknowledge support from MINECO DPI2015-65833-P, TIN2014-54580-R, TIN-2012-30883 and ONRG grant N62909-14-1-N279.


  1. 1.

    Marder E, Calabrese RL. Principles of rhythmic motor pattern generation. Physiol Rev. 1996;76:687–717.

  2. 2.

    Selverston AI, Rabinovich MI, Abarbanel HDI, Elson R, Szücs A, Pinto RD, Huerta R, Varona P. Reliable circuits from irregular neurons: a dynamical approach to understanding central pattern generators. J Physiol. 2000;94:357–74.

  3. 3.

    Latorre R, Rodríguez FB, Varona P. Neural signatures: multiple coding in spiking-bursting cells. Biol Cybern. 2006;95:169–83.

  4. 4.

    Elices I, Varona P. Closed-loop control of a minimal central pattern generator network. Neurocomputing. 2015;170:55–62.

O2 Regulation of top-down processing by cortically-projecting parvalbumin positive neurons in basal forebrain

Eunjin Hwang1, Bowon Kim1,2, Hio-Been Han1,3, Tae Kim4, James T. McKenna5, Ritchie E. Brown5, Robert W. McCarley5, Jee Hyun Choi1,2

1Center for Neuroscience, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarang-ro 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02792, South Korea; 2Department of Neuroscience, University of Science and Technology, 217 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 34113, South Korea; 3Department of Psychology, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722, South Korea; 4Department of Psychiatry, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, 892, Dongnam-ro, Gangdong-gu, Seoul 05278, South Korea; 5Department of Psychiatry, Veterans Administration Boston Healthcare System and Harvard Medical School, Brockton, MA 02301, USA

Correspondence: Jee Hyun Choi -

BMC Neuroscience 2016, 17(Suppl 1):O2

Particular behaviors are associated with different spatio-temporal patterns of cortical EEG oscillations. A recent study suggests that the cortically-projecting, parvalbumin-positive (PV+) inhibitory neurons in the basal forebrain (BF) play an important role in the state-dependent control of cortical oscillations, especially ~40 Hz gamma oscillations [1]. However, the cortical topography of the gamma oscillations which are controlled by BF PV+ neurons and their relationship to behavior are unknown. Thus, in this study, we investigated the spatio-temporal patterns and the functional role of the cortical oscillations induced or entrained by BF PV+ neurons by combining optogenetic stimulation of BF PV+ neurons with high-density EEG [2, 3] in channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) transduced PV-cre mice. First, we recorded the spatio-temporal responses in the cortex with respect to the stimulation of BF PV+ neurons at various frequencies. The topographic response patterns were distinctively different depending on the stimulation frequencies, and most importantly, stimulation of BF PV+ neurons at 40 Hz (gamma band frequency) induced a preferential enhancement of gamma band oscillations in prefrontal cortex (PFC) with a statistically significant increase in intracortical connectivity within PFC. Second, optogenetic stimulation of BF PV+ neurons was applied while the mice were exposed to auditory stimuli (AS) at 40 Hz. The time delay between optogenetic stimulation and AS was tested and the phase response to the AS was characterized. We found that the phase responses to the click sound in PFC were modulated by the optogenetic stimulation of BF PV+ neurons. More specifically, the advanced activation of BF PV+ neurons by π/2 (6.25 ms) with respect to AS sharpened the phase response to AS in PFC, while the anti-phasic activation (π, 12.5 ms) blunted the phase response. Interestingly, like PFC, the primary auditory cortex (A1) also showed sharpened phase response for the π/2 advanced optogenetic BF PV+ neuron activation during AS. Considering that no direct influence of BF PV+ neurons on A1 was apparent in the response to stimulation of BF PV+ neurons alone, the sharpened phase response curve of A1 suggests a top-down influence of the PFC. This result implies that the BF PV+ neurons may participate in regulating the top-down influence that PFC exerts on primary sensory cortices during attentive behaviors, and supports the idea that the modulating activities of BF PV+ neurons might be a potential target for restoring top-down cognitive functions as well as abnormal frontal gamma oscillations associated with psychiatric disorders.

Acknowledgements: This research was supported by the Department of Veterans Affairs, the Korean National Research Council of Science & Technology (No. CRC-15-04-KIST), NIMH R01 MH039683 and Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (2015R1D1A1A01059119). The contents of this report do not represent the views of the US Department of Veterans Affairs or the United States government.


  1. 1.

    Kim T, et al. Cortically projecting basal forebrain parvalbumin neurons regulate cortical gamma band oscillations. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2015;112(11):3535–40.

  2. 2.

    Choi JH, et al. High resolution electroencephalography in freely moving mice. J Neurophysiol .2010;104(3):1825–34.

  3. 3.

    Lee M, et al. High-density EEG recordings of the freely moving mice using polyimide-based microelectrode. J Vis Exp. 2011;47. doi:10.3791/2562.

O3 Modeling auditory stream segregation, build-up and bistability

James Rankin1, Pamela Osborn Popp1, John Rinzel1,2

1Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York 10003, NY; 2Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York 10012, NY

Correspondence: James Rankin -

BMC Neuroscience 2016, 17(Suppl 1):O3

With neuromechanistic modelling and psychoacoustic experiments we study the perceptual dynamics of auditory streaming (cocktail party problem). The stimulus is a sequence of two interleaved tones, A and B in a repeating triplet pattern: ABA_ABA_ (‘_’ is a silent gap). Initially, subjects hear a single integrated pattern, but after some seconds they hear segregated A_A_A_ and _B___B__ streams (build-up of streaming segregation). For long presentations, build-up is followed by irregular alternations between integrated and segregated (auditory bistability). We recently presented [1] the first neuromechanistic model of auditory bistability; it incorporates common competition mechanisms of mutual inhibition, slow adaptation and noise [2]. Our competition network is formulated to reside downstream of primary auditory cortex (A1). Neural responses in macaque A1 to triplet sequences [3] encode stimulus features and provide the inputs to our network (Fig. 1A). In our model recurrent excitation with an NMDA-like timescale links responses across gaps between tones and between triplets. It captures the dynamics of perceptual alternations and the stimulus feature dependence of percept durations. To account for build-up we incorporate early adaptation of A1 responses [3] (Fig. 1B, upper). Early responses in A1 are broadly tuned and do not reflect the frequency difference between the tones; later responses show a clear tonotopic dependence. This adaptation biases the initial percept towards integration, but occurs faster (~0.5 s) than the gradual build-up process (~5–10 s). The low initial probability of segregation gradually builds up to the stable probability of later bistable alternations (Fig. 1B, lower). During build-up, a pause in presentation may cause partial reset to integrated [4]. Our extended model shows this behavior assuming that after a pause A1 responses recover on the timescale of early adaptation. Moreover, the modeling results agree with our psychoacoustic experiments (compare filled and open circles in Fig. 1B, lower).

Fig. 1

A Model schematic: tone inputs IA and IB elicit pulsatile responses in A1, which are pooled as inputs to a three-population competition network. Central unit AB encodes integrated, peripheral units A and B encode segregated. Mutual inhibition between units and recurrent excitation are incorporated with adaptation and noise. B A1 inputs show early initial adaptation, also if a pause is present. Build-up function shows proportion segregated increasing over time, here shown for three tone-frequency differences, DF, with no pause (dashed) or with a pause (solid curves). Time-snapshots from model (filled circles) agree with data (empty circles with SEM error bars, N = 8)

Conclusions For the first time, we offer an explanation of the discrepancy in the timescales of early A1 responses and the more gradual build-up process. Recovery of A1 responses can explain resetting for stimulus pauses. Our model offers, to date, the most complete account of the early and late dynamics for auditory streaming in the triplet paradigm.


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    Rankin J, Sussman E, Rinzel J. Neuromechanistic model of auditory bistability. PLoS Comput Biol. 2015;11:e1004555.

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    Shpiro A, Moreno-Bote R, Rubin N, Rinzel J. Balance between noise and adaptation in competition models of perceptual bistability. J Comp Neurosci. 2009;27:37–54.

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    Micheyl C, Tian B, Carlyon R, Rauschecker J. Perceptual organization of tone sequences in the auditory cortex of awake macaques. Neuron. 2005;48:139–48.

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    Beauvois MW, Meddis R. Time decay of auditory stream biasing. Percept Psychophys. 1997;59:81–6.

O4 Strong competition between tonotopic neural ensembles explains pitch-related dynamics of auditory cortex evoked fields

Alejandro Tabas1, André Rupp2,†, Emili Balaguer-Ballester1,3,†

1Faculty of Science and Technology, Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, England, UK; 2Heidelberg University, Baden-Württemberg, Germany; 3Bernstein Center for Computational Neuroscience, Heidelberg-Mannheim, Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Correspondence: Alejandro Tabas -

Equal contribution

BMC Neuroscience 2016, 17(Suppl 1):O4

Auditory evoked fields (AEFs) observed in MEG experiments systematically present a transient deflection known as the N100 m, elicited around 100 ms after the tone onset in the antero-lateral Heschl’s Gyrus. The exact N100m’s latency is correlated with the perceived pitch of a wide range of stimulus [1, 2], suggesting that the transient component reflects the processing of pitch in auditory cortex. However, the biophysical substrate of such precise relationship remains an enigma. Existing models of pitch, focused on perceptual phenomena, did not explain the mechanism generating cortical evoked fields during pitch processing in biophysical detail. In this work, we introduce a model of interacting neural ensembles describing, for the first time to our knowledge, how cortical pitch processing gives rise to observed human neuromagnetic responses and why its latency strongly correlates with pitch.

To provide a realistic cortical input, we used a recent model of the auditory periphery and realistic subcortical processing stages. Subcortical processing was based on a delay-and-multiply operation carried out in cochlear nucleus and inferior colliculus [3], resulting in realistic patterns of neural activation in response to the stimulus periodicities. Subcortical activation is transformed into a tonotopic receptive-field-like representation [4] by a novel cortical circuit composed by functional blocks characterised by a best frequency. Each block consist of an excitatory and an inhibitory population, modelled using mean-field approximations [5]. Blocks interact with each other through local AMPA- and NMDA-driven excitation and GABA-driven global inhibition [5].

The excitation-inhibition competition of the cortical model describes a general pitch processing mechanism that explains the N100m deflection as a transient state in the cortical dynamics. The deflection is rapidly triggered by a rise in the activity elicited by the subcortical input, peaks after the inhibition overcomes the input, and stabilises when model dynamics reach equilibrium, around 100 ms after onset. As a direct consequence of the connectivity structure among blocks, the time necessary for the system to reach equilibrium depends on the encoded pitch of the tone. The model quantitatively predicts observed latencies of the N100m in agreement with available empirical data [1, 2] in a series of stimuli (see Fig. 2), suggesting that the mechanism potentially accounts for the N100 m dynamics.

Fig. 2

N100 m predictions in comparison with available data [1, 2] for a range of pure tones (A) and HCTs (B)


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    Seither-Preisler A, Patterson R, Krumbholz K, Seither S, Lütkenhöner B. Evidence of pitch processing in the N100 m component of the auditory evoked field. Hear Res. 2006;213(1–2):88–98.

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O5 A simple model of retinal response to multi-electrode stimulation

Matias I. Maturana1,2, David B. Grayden2,3, Shaun L. Cloherty4, Tatiana Kameneva2, Michael R. Ibbotson1,5, Hamish Meffin1,5

1National Vision Research Institute, Australian College of Optometry, 3053, Australia; 2NeuroEngineering Laboratory, Dept. Electrical & Electronic Eng., University of Melbourne, 3010, Australia; 3Centre for Neural Engineering, University of Melbourne, 3010, Australia; 4Department of Physiology, Monash University, 3800, Australia; 5ARC Centre of Excellence for Integrative Brain Function, Department Optometry and Vision Sciences, University of Melbourne, 3010, Australia

Correspondence: Hamish Meffin -

BMC Neuroscience 2016, 17(Suppl 1):O5

Retinal implants can restore vision to patients suffering photoreceptor loss by stimulating surviving retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) via an array of microelectrodes implanted within the eye [1]. However, the acuity offered by existing devices is low, limiting the benefits to patients. Improvements may come by increasing the number of electrodes in new devices and providing patterned vision, which necessitates stimulation using multiple electrodes simultaneously. However, simultaneous stimulation poses a number of problems due to cross-talk between electrodes and uncertainty regarding the resulting activation pattern.

Here, we present a model and methods for estimating the responses of RGCs to simultaneous electrical stimulation. Whole cell in vitro patch clamp recordings were obtained from 25 RGCs with various morphological types in rat retina. The retinae were placed onto an array of 20 stimulating electrodes. Biphasic current pulses with 500 µs phase duration and 50 µs interphase gap were applied simultaneously to all electrodes at a frequency of 10 Hz, with the amplitude of current on each electrode sampled independently from a Gaussian distribution.

A linear-nonlinear model was fit to the responses of each RGC using spike-triggered covariance analyses on 80 % of the recorded data. The analysis revealed a single significant principle component corresponding to the electrical receptive field for each cell, with the second largest principle component having negligible effect on the neural response (Fig. 3a). This indicates that interactions between electrodes are approximately linear in their influence on the cells’ responses.

Fig. 3

a Spike triggered covariance showing the full set of stimuli (black dots) projected onto the first two principle components. Stimuli causing a spike formed two clusters: net cathodic first pulses (blue) and net anodic first pulse (red). b Electrical receptive fields superimposed on the electrode array are shown for the cathodic first (blue) and anodic first clusters (red)

Furthermore, the spike-triggered ensemble showed two clusters (red and blue in Fig. 3a) corresponding to stimulation that had a net effect that was either anodic first or cathodic first. The electrical receptive fields for both anodic first and cathodic first stimulation were highly similar (Fig. 3b). They consisted of a small number (1–4) of electrodes that were close to the cell body (green dot).

The remaining 20 % of data were used to validate the model. The average model prediction root-mean-square error was 7 % over the 25 cells. The accuracy of the model indicates that the linear-nonlinear model is appropriate to describe the responses of RGCs to electrical stimulation.

Acknowledgements: This research was supported by the Australian Research Council (ARC). MI, HM, and SC acknowledge support through the Centre of Excellence for Integrative Brain Function (CE140100007), TK through ARC Discovery Early Career Researcher Award (DE120102210) and HM and TK through the ARC Discovery Projects funding scheme (DP140104533).


  1. 1.

    Hadjinicolaou AE, Meffin H, Maturana M, Cloherty SL, Ibbotson MR. Prosthetic vision: devices, patient outcomes and retinal research. Clin Exp Optom. 2015;98(5):395–410.

O6 Noise correlations in V4 area correlate with behavioral performance in visual discrimination task

Veronika Koren1,2, Timm Lochmann1,2, Valentin Dragoi3, Klaus Obermayer1,2

1Institute of Software Engineering and Theoretical Computer Science, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Berlin, 10587, Germany; 2 Bernstein Center for Computational Neuroscience Berlin, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Berlin, 10115, Germany; 3Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Texas-Houston Medical School, Houston, TX 77030, USA

Correspondence: Veronika Koren -

BMC Neuroscience 2016, 17(Suppl 1):O6

Linking sensory coding and behavior is a fundamental question in neuroscience. We have addressed this issue in behaving monkey visual cortex (areas V1 and V4) while animals were trained to perform a visual discrimination task in which two successive images were either rotated with respect to each other or were the same. We hypothesized that the animal’s performance in the visual discrimination task depends on the quality of stimulus coding in visual cortex. We tested this hypothesis by investigating the functional relevance of neuronal correlations in areas V1 and V4 in relation to behavioral performance. We measured two types of correlations: noise (spike count) correlations and correlations in spike timing. Surprisingly, both methods showed that correct responses are associated with significantly higher correlations in V4, but not V1, during the delay period between the two stimuli. This suggests that pair-wise interactions during the spontaneous activity preceding the arrival of the stimulus sets the stage for subsequent stimulus processing and importantly influences behavioral performance.

Experiments were conducted in 2 adult monkeys that were previously trained for the task. After 300 ms of fixation, the target stimulus, consisting of a naturalistic stimulus, is shown for 300 ms, and after a random delay period (500–1200 ms), a test stimulus is shown for 300 ms. The test can either be identical to the target stimulus (match) or rotated with respect to the target (non-match). Monkey responded by pressing a button and was rewarded for a correct response with fruit juice. Two linear arrays with 16 recording channels each were used to record population activity in areas V1 and V4. The difficulty of the task is calibrated individually to have 70 % correct responses on average. The analysis is conducted on non-match condition, comparing activity in trials with correct responses with trials where the monkey responded incorrectly. Noise correlations were assessed as pair-wise correlations of spike counts (method 1) and of spike timing (method 2). For method 1, z-scores of spike counts of binned spike trains are computed in individual trials. r_sc is computed as Pearson correlation coefficient of z-scores in all available trials, balanced across correct/incorrect condition. For the method 2, cross-correlograms were computed, from which the cross-correlograms from shuffled trials are subtracted. Resulting function was summed around zero lag and normalized with sum of autocorrelograms [1].

While firing rates of single units or of the population did not significantly change for correct and incorrect responses, noise correlations during the delay period were significantly higher in V4 pairs, computed with both r_sc method (p = 0.0005 in monkey 1, sign-rank test) and with r_ccg method (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.0280 in monkey 1 and 2, respectively, 50 ms integration window). This result is robust to changes in the length of the bin (method 1) and to the length of the summation window (method 2). In agreement with [2], we confirm the importance of spontaneous activity preceding the stimulus on performance and suggest that higher correlations in V4 might be beneficial for successful read-out and reliable transmission of the information downstream.


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    Bair W, Zohary E, Newsome WT. Correlated firing in macaque visual area MT: time scales and relationship to behavior. J Neurosci. 2001; 21(5):1676–97.

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    Gutnisky DA, Beaman CB, Lew SE, Dragoi V. Spontaneous fluctuations in visual cortical responses influence population coding accuracy. Cereb Cortex. 2016;1–19.

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    Cohen MR, Maunsell JH. Attention improves performance primarily by reducing interneuronal correlations. Nat Neurosci. 2009;12(12):1594–1600.

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O7 Input-location dependent gain modulation in cerebellar nucleus neurons

Maria Psarrou1, Maria Schilstra1, Neil Davey1, Benjamin Torben-Nielsen1, Volker Steuber1

Centre for Computer Science and Informatics Research, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, AL10 9AB, UK

Correspondence: Maria Psarrou -

BMC Neuroscience 2016, 17(Suppl 1):O7

Gain modulation is a brain-wide principle of neuronal computation that describes how neurons integrate inputs from different presynaptic sources. A gain change is a multiplicative operation that is defined as a change in the sensitivity (or slope of the response amplitude) of a neuron to one set of inputs (driving input) which results from the activity of a second set of inputs (modulatory input) [1, 2].

Different cellular and network mechanisms have been proposed to underlie gain modulation [2–4]. It is well established that input features such as synaptic noise and plasticity can contribute to multiplicative gain changes [2–4]. However, the effect of neuronal morphology on gain modulation is relatively unexplored. Neuronal inputs to the soma and dendrites are integrated in a different manner: whilst dendritic saturation can introduce a strong non-linear relationship between dendritic excitation and somatic depolarization, the relationship between somatic excitation and depolarization is more linear. The non-linear integration of dendritic inputs can enhance the multiplicative effect of shunting inhibition in the presence of noise [3].

Neurons in the cerebellar nuclei (CN) provide the main gateway from the cerebellum to the rest of the brain. Understanding how inhibitory inputs from cerebellar Purkinje cells interact with excitatory inputs from mossy fibres to control output from the CN is at the center of understanding cerebellar computation. In the present study, we investigated the effect of inhibitory modulatory input on CN neuronal output when the excitatory driving input was delivered at different locations in the CN neuron. We used a morphologically realistic conductance based CN neuron model [5] and examined the change in output gain in the presence of distributed inhibitory input under two conditions: (a) when the excitatory input was confined to one compartment (the soma or a dendritic compartment) and, (b), when the excitatory input was distributed across particular dendritic regions at different distances from the soma. For both of these conditions, our results show that the arithmetic operation performed by inhibitory synaptic input depends on the location of the excitatory synaptic input. In the presence of distal dendritic excitatory inputs, the inhibitory input has a multiplicative effect on the CN neuronal output. In contrast, excitatory inputs at the soma or proximal dendrites close to the soma undergo additive operations in the presence of inhibitory input. Moreover, the amount of the multiplicative gain change correlates with the distance of the excitatory inputs from the soma, with increasing distances from the soma resulting in increased gain changes and decreased additive shifts along the input axis. These results indicate that the location of synaptic inputs affects in a systematic way whether the input undergoes a multiplicative or additive operation.


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    Salinas E, Sejnowski TJ. Gain modulation in the central nervous system: where behavior, neurophysiology, and computation meet. Neuroscientist. 2001;7(5):430–40.

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    Silver RA. Neuronal arithmetic. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2010;11(7):474–89.

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    Prescott SA, De Koninck Y. Gain control of firing rate by shunting inhibition: roles of synaptic noise and dendritic saturation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2003;100(4):2076–81.

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    Rothman J, Cathala L, Steuber V, Silver RA. Synaptic depression enables neuronal gain control. Nature. 2009;475:1015–18.

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    Steuber V, Schultheiss NW, Silver RA, De Schutter E, Jaeger D. Determinants of synaptic integration and heterogeneity in rebound firing explored with data-driven models of deep cerebellar nucleus cells. J Comput Neurosci. 2011;30(3):633–58.

O8 Analytic solution of cable energy function for cortical axons and dendrites

Huiwen Ju1, Jiao Yu2, Michael L. Hines3, Liang Chen4 and Yuguo Yu1

1School of Life Science and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200438, China; 2Linyi Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 211 Jiefang Road, Lanshan, Linyi, Shandong Province, 276000, China; 3Department of Neuroscience, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA; 4Department of Neurosurgery, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, China

Correspondence: Yuguo Yu -

BMC Neuroscience 2016, 17(Suppl 1):O8

Accurate estimation of action potential (AP)-related metabolic cost is essential for understanding energetic constraints on brain connections and signaling processes. Most previous energy estimates of the AP were obtained using the Na+-counting method [1, 2], which seriously limits accurate assessment of metabolic cost of ionic currents that underlie AP generation. Moreover, the effects of axonal geometry and ion channel distribution on energy consumption related to AP propagation have not been systematically investigated.

To address these issues, we return to the cable theory [3] that underlies our HH-type cortical axon model [4], which was constructed based on experimental measurements. Based on the cable equation that describes how ion currents flow along the cable as well as analysis of the electrochemical energy in the equivalent circuit, we derived the electrochemical energy function for the cable model,

$$ \begin{aligned} \frac{{\partial^{2} E}}{\partial x\partial t} & = I_{Na} \left( {V - V_{Na} } \right) + I_{K} \left( {V - V_{K} } \right) + I_{L} \left( {V - V_{L} } \right) - \frac{1}{2\pi a}i_{a} \frac{\partial V}{\partial x} \\ & = g_{Na}^{\hbox{max} } m^{3} h\left( {V\left( {x,t} \right) - V_{Na} } \right)^{2} + g_{K}^{\hbox{max} } n^{4} \left( {V\left( {x,t} \right) - V_{K} } \right)^{2} \\ & \quad + g_{L} \left( {V\left( {x,t} \right) - V_{L} } \right)^{2} + G_{a} \left( {\frac{\partial V}{\partial x}} \right)^{2} \\ \end{aligned} $$

where g maxNa (in a range of 50–650 mS/cm2), g maxK (5–100 mS/cm2), and gL = 0.033 mS/cm2 are the maximal sodium, maximal potassium, and leak conductance per unit membrane area, respectively; and VNa = 60, VK = −90 VL = −70 mV are the reversal potentials of the sodium, potassium, and leak channels, respectively. The gate variables m, h, and n are dimensionless activation and inactivation variables, which describe the activation and inactivation processes of the sodium and potassium channels [4]. This equation describes the AP-related energy consumption rate per unit membrane area (cm2/s) at any axonal distance and any time. The individual terms on the right-hand side of the equation represent the contributions of the sodium, potassium, leak, and axial currents, respectively. Then we employed the cable energy function to calculate energy consumption for unbranched axons and axons with several degrees of branching (branching level, BL). Calculations based on this function distinguish between the contributions of each item toward total energy consumption.

Our analytical approach predicts an inhomogeneous distribution of metabolic cost along an axon with either uniformly or nonuniformly distributed ion channels. The results show that the Na+-counting method severely underestimates energy cost in the cable model by 20–70 %. AP propagation along axons that differ in length may require over 15 % more energy per unit of axon area than that required by a point model. However, actual energy cost can vary greatly depending on axonal branching complexity, ion channel density distributions, and AP conduction states. We also infer that the metabolic rate (i.e. energy consumption rate) of cortical axonal branches as a function of spatial volume exhibits a 3/4 power law relationship.

Acknowledgements: Dr. Yu thanks for the support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31271170, 31571070), Shanghai program of Professor of Special Appointment (Eastern Scholar SHH1140004).


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    Yu Y, Hill AP, McCormick DA. Warm body temperature facilitates energy efficient cortical action potentials. PLoS Comput Biol. 2012;8(4):e1002456.

O9 C. elegans interactome: interactive visualization of Caenorhabditis elegans worm neuronal network

Jimin Kim1, Will Leahy2, Eli Shlizerman1,3

1Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA; Inc., Seattle, WA 98108, USA; 3Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA

Correspondence: Eli Shlizerman -

BMC Neuroscience 2016, 17(Suppl 1):O9

Modeling neuronal systems involves incorporating the two layers: a static map of neural connections (connectome), and biophysical processes that describe neural responses and interactions. Such a model is called the ‘dynome’ of a neuronal system as it integrates a dynamical system with the static connectome. Being closer to reproducing the activity of a neuronal system, investigation of the dynome has more potential to reveal neuronal pathways of the network than the static connectome [1]. However, since the two layers of the dynome are considered simultaneously, novel tools have to be developed for the dynome studies. Here we present a visualization methodology, called `interactome’, that allows to explore the dynome of a neuronal system interactively and in real-time, by viewing the dynamics overlaid on a graph representation of the connectome.

We apply our methodology to the nervous system of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) worm, which connectome is almost fully resolved [2], and a computational model of neural dynamics and interactions (gap and synaptic) based on biophysical experimental findings was recently introduced [3]. Integrated together, C. elegans dynome defines a unique set of neural dynamics of the worm. To visualize the dynome, we propose a dynamic force-directed graph layout of the connectome. The layout is impleme