Olfactory BulbLocal Field PotentialGamma BandRespiratory RhythmTheta Band
The neocortex of mammalian brains shows prominent oscillatory activity in the local field potential (LFP) and EEG signal within a broad range of frequencies from slow (1-8 Hz) delta/theta band to gamma band (40-100 Hz) and higher frequencies . Oscillations in different frequency bands seem to be linked. There is increasing evidence that amplitude modulations in the gamma frequency band are phase-locked to the delta/theta rhythm . Several studies have linked theta-gamma phase-amplitude coupling to cognitive processes . Here we report that in awake mice gamma band LFP power in the barrel cortex is phase-locked to the concurrent theta band LFP oscillation and that this theta band oscillation is strongly correlated to the respiratory rhythm. When the animals were briefly exposed to hypoxic air, the resulting frequency increases in the respiratory rhythm were paralleled in the delta/theta band LFP oscillations (Fig.1A-D). LFP oscillations in sub-bands of the broad (40 – 100 Hz) gamma frequency band were amplitude-modulated in phase with the breathing frequency (Fig. 1E). After removal of the olfactory bulb the frequency profile of the phase-amplitude coupling was significantly changed. Particularly the respiration-locked amplitude modulation in the high gamma band (64-128 Hz), which was prominent in healthy control mice, shifted to lower frequencies in bulbectomized mice. Our findings imply that in mice respiratory activity directly modulates delta/theta band LFP oscillations through respiration-locked olfactory bulb activity and indirectly, through phase-amplitude coupling, gamma band power.
Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-6), Forschungszentrum Jülich, Jülich, Germany
Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, USA
Theoretical Systems Neurobiology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany
Canolty RT, Edwards E, Dalal SS, Soltani M, Nagarajan SS, Kirsch HE, Berger MS, Barbaro NM, Knight RT: High Gamma Power Is Phase-Locked to Theta Oscillations in Human Neocortex. Science. 2006, 313 (5793): 1626-1628. 10.1126/science.1128115.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.