Schematic illustration of the potential mechanisms of C/EBP action in maintaining distal axon integrity following axotomy. C/EBP mRNA is expressed in both the soma and axon [34, 56]. In the soma, C/EBP functions as a transcription factor and results in the transcription of regenerative-associated genes, such as α-tubulin and GAP-43, via a cAMP/PKA/CREB dependent signalling pathway . Axon injury also activates an ERK-dependent pathway that results in the phosphorylation of C/EBP and further activation of pro-regenerative genes . In both proximal and distal axons, C/EBP mRNA is stabilized by DLK-1 following axotomy . Local protein synthesis of C/EBP in the distal axon may be required for regeneration or to prevent degeneration of distal axons following injury.