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Table 1 Key Synaptic Phenotypes in Mouse Models of Diseased Cognition

From: Imbalanced pattern completion vs. separation in cognitive disease: network simulations of synaptic pathologies predict a personalized therapeutics strategy

Disease Model LTP LTD Inhibition Connectivity
Angelman synd. Decreased [40, 46]    Decreased [47]
   Ube3A KO     
Down synd. Decreased [4850] Increased [51] Increased [24, 49] Decreased/Increased* [24, 52, 53]
Fragile × synd. Decreased/Increased [5456] Increased [57] Decreased [5860] Decreased/Increased* [25, 27, 28]
   Fmr1 KO     
FRAXE synd. Increased [61]    
   Fmr2 KO     
Neurofibromat. Decreased [6264]   Increased [62, 63]  
   Nf1 het     
Rett synd. Decreased [65, 66] Decreased [65] Increased [67] Decreased [68, 69]
   Mecp2 KO     
Tuberous Scler. Decreased [70] Decreased [70]   Decreased [71, 72]
   Tsc1 KO     
   Tsc2 KO (rat)     
Various XLMR Decreased [73, 74] Decreased [75]   
   Ophn1 KO     
   Pak3 KO     
   Gdi1 KO     
Schizophrenia Decreased [76, 77] Decreased [78] Decreased [78] Decreased [76, 7981]
   Disc1 mut     
   Reelin het     
   22q11 del     
ALS Increased [82]    Decreased [83]
   Sod1 mut     
Alzheimer's Decreased [30, 32, 8486]   Increased [30, 32] Decreased/Increased* [26, 84, 8789]
   App mut     
   Ps1/Ps2 KO     
   App/Ps1 mut     
Huntington's Decreased [38, 90, 91] Decreased/Increased [92, 93]   
   Htt mut     
Parkinson's. Decreased/Increased [94, 95] Decreased [94]   
   Dj-1 KO     
   Parkin KO     
SCA Decreased [96, 97]    Decreased [98]
   Sca1 mut     
   Fgf14 KO     
  1. The first column lists neurological conditions associated with impaired cognition, along with corresponding diseased-linked mutations that have been modeled in mice. The remaining columns list reported alterations to LTP, LTD, synaptic inhibition, and connectivity in each group of mouse models. Asterisks indicate reports of increased connectivity that are accompanied by concomitant decreases in connectivity in different neuronal subpopulations. As well as direct physiological measurement of synaptic connectivity, indirect findings of altered dendritic spine density or axonal projections were considered indications of altered connectivity. While the connections within CA3 are the primary focus of our simulations, studies of synapses throughout the hippocampus are listed to allow a comprehensive comparison of existing data. When no hippocampal data was available, studies of other cortical neuron populations were included.