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Table 2 The in vivo effects of IONPs

From: Iron oxide nanoparticles may damage to the neural tissue through iron accumulation, oxidative stress, and protein aggregation

Organism (method) NP type Size (nm) Concentration Coating Functional group Explantations
Rat (Intratracheal instillation) Fe3O4 <50 1 and 5 mg kg−1 None (bare) Hydroxyl Reduction of body weight [68]
Rat (Oral) Fe2O3 30 30, 300, and 1000 mg kg−1 day−1 None (bare) Hydroxyl Significant inhibition of Na+–K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ ATPases in brain, reduction of body weight in high dose, and reduced activity of acetyl choline esterase in the brain in high dose [64]
Rat (Intranasal) Fe2O3 36 20 µg µL−1 APTS Amine Significant increased oxidative stress and delay in removing of NPs from stratum and hippocampus [55]
Rat (Intravascular injection) Fe2O3 10 50 mg kg−1 None (bare) Hydroxyl Significantly decreased dopamine in striatum and dopaminergic neurons damage [39]
Rat# (Injection into stratum) Fe3O4 6.5 ± 3.0 3 µg NP 2 µL−1 in a CSF None (bare) Hydroxyl Increased body weight and reduction of oxidative stress in stratum [60]
Mouse (Intravascular injection) Fe3O4 5 0.4, 2, and 10 µg kg−1 PEG Hydroxyl Induction of oxidative stress and DNA damage in heart [69]
Drosophila (Exposure) Fe3O4 20 200 μg mL−1 None (bare) Hydroxyl Significant reduced ROS levels, enhanced climbing ability, and increased longevity in six-week-old flies [40]
Green algae (Raphidocelis subcapitata) (Exposure) Fe2O3 33.3* 1–100 mg L−1 None (bare) Hydroxyl Inhibition of growth by coated and uncoated NPs after 72 h [70]
50.4* 1–100 mg L−1 dimercaptosuccinic acid Thiol and Carboxyl
Duckweed (Lemna minor) (Exposure) Fe2O3 33.3* 1–100 mg L−1 None (bare) Hydroxyl Unaffected by NPs in this range of doses [70]
50.4* 1–100 mg L−1 dimercaptosuccinic acid Thiol and Carboxyl
Water fleas (Daphnia magna) (Exposure) Fe2O3 33.3* 10–100 mg L−1 None (bare) Hydroxyl Significant toxicity, the ingestion and accumulation of coated and uncoated IONPs in the gastrointestinal tract [70]
50.4* 1–100 mg L−1 Dimercaptosuccinic acid Thiol and Carboxyl
  1. It is difficult to compare the in vivo effects of IONPs; because some studies don’t easily provide information of NPs; and in vivo interactions is more complex when compared with in vitro. Above studies proposed that Fe3+ is more toxic than Fe2+. IONPs reduced oxidative stress in drosophila and Parkinson model-rat, but in others were ineffective or toxic
  2. #Parkinson model, * hydrate diameter