Skip to main content


Fig. 6 | BMC Neuroscience

Fig. 6

From: Astaxanthin protects astrocytes against trauma-induced apoptosis through inhibition of NKCC1 expression via the NF-κB signaling pathway

Fig. 6

Neuroprotection by ATX-mediated inhibition of injury-induced cleaved caspase-3 expression is mediated by NF-κB and NKCC1 inactivation. a Injury significantly increased cleaved caspase-3 protein levels, while pretreatment with ATX (50 μmol/L) for 2 h significantly downregulated the elevated cleaved caspase-3 protein levels. Similarly, pretreatment with PDTC (10 μmol/L) or bumetanide (BU) (50 μmol/L) for 2 h prior to injury also markedly inhibited the increase in cleaved caspase-3 protein levels. b Densities of the corresponding bands were measured, and the ratios were calculated. Mean ± SEM (n = 3). **p < 0.01 versus the control group; # p < 0.05 versus the injury group

Back to article page