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Fig. 2 | BMC Neuroscience

Fig. 2

From: Astaxanthin protects astrocytes against trauma-induced apoptosis through inhibition of NKCC1 expression via the NF-κB signaling pathway

Fig. 2

ATX inhibits the apoptotic cell death of astrocytes after injury. Injury caused a significant increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio (A) and cleaved caspase-3/pro-caspase 3 ratio (B) in astrocytes, which was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with ATX. (C) Representative images of DAPI staining and TUNEL assays used to analyze apoptotic cells (magnification ×200). Quantification showed that pretreated with ATX markedly decreased the apoptotic index after injury. Scale bar 25 μm. ATX astaxanthin. Mean ± SEM (n = 3). **p < 0.01 versus the control group; # p < 0.05, ## p < 0.01 versus the injury group

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