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Table 1 Reserve-related constructs and suggested operationalization

From: Reserve and Reserve-building activities research: key challenges and future directions

Construct Definition Potential measures
Genetic and inborn factors Background determinants of brain function Single nucleotide polymorphisms
Brain Reserve Brain structure Head size, intracranial volume, synapse count, structural magnetic resonance imaging
Neuronal network function Made up of the brain, spinal cord and nerves, the central nervous system (CNS) is responsible for integrating sensory information and responding accordingly Functional magnetic resonance imaging
Environmental factors Contextual factors specific to the person that may constrain or facilitate functioning Stressful events (e.g., job loss, death of a loved one) or socioeconomic adversity (e.g., inability to pay bills, unsafe neighborhood, social isolation, etc.) or advantage (e.g., financial security, safe neighborhood, community connection, opportunity)
Disease burden Assaults to the brain due to disease or injury Structural magnetic resonance imaging (e.g., lesion load, atrophy)
Reserve Compensatory or protective factor that limits the impact of assaults to the brain from the disease or injury. When low, then impact of assaults to the brain are magnified The impact of Reserve on CNS functioning can be inferred by estimating the impact of past and current-Reserve building activities because the path from the activities to CNS functioning is through Reserve
Reserve-building activities Past and current achievement (occupational, educational) as well as enrichment activities across a range of domains (physical, cultural, intellectual, communal, spiritual, and lifestyle pursuits) Patient-reported outcome measure such as the DeltaQuest Reserve-Building Activities Measure©
Reserve-related person characteristics Attitudes, values, and socio-emotional skills Person-reported measures of perseverance, work value, and socio-emotional intelligence resources. May also consider measures of appraisal processes and personality
Difference between observed and expected performance Difference been observable performance on a task and the performance expected based on available covariates Performance-based metrics such as cognitive, motor, and behavioral measures reflecting neurocognitive processing speed, executive function, physical functioning, emotional health, and/or disability