CSE exposure of various TS products induces inflammatory stress in BBB ECs. a1 mRNA expression of NFκB-p65 in hCMEC/D3 cells following exposure to nicotine, CSE from both tobacco products; a2 western blot analysis of cytosolic and nuclear fractions of NFκB-p65 showed increased protein expression and nuclear localization following CSEs; representative western blots were shown with actin as a loading control; a3 the translocation status could be better understood via ratio of cytosolic versus nuclear NFκB-p65 plotted in terms of percent control; b release of chemokines such as IL-8 and MCP-1 from hCMEC/D3 cell cultures as determined by ELISA; c VEGF release was up-regulated in endothelial cultures exposed to full flavor and ULN CSE but not nicotine. Data were expressed as mean ± SEM (fold change over control). *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001, ****p < 0.0001 vs. control. n = 6 biological replicates/condition.