Stress increases plasma cytokines. Plasma (A) TNFα, (B) IL-10, (C) IL-13, (D) IL-17A, (E) IFN-γ, (F) MIP-1β, (G) IL-3, and (H) GM-CSF levels after inescapable foot shocks. Mice were acutely stressed with inescapable foot shocks once, or two times separated by 24 hr. Plasma was collected 1, 6, 12, and 24 hr after a single session of inescapable foot shocks, and 15 min, 1, 3, and 6 hr after two daily inescapable foot shock sessions. Plasma from three to four mice was pooled and cytokines were measured by multiplex. Values shown as 0 were below the detection limits.