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Table 3 ANOVA results and mean ±SEM values for vigilance parameters in the summarized first 2 h

From: Chronic escitalopram treatment attenuated the accelerated rapid eye movement sleep transitions after selective rapid eye movement sleep deprivation: a model-based analysis using Markov chains

  Two-way ANOVA mean ± SEM
Treatment effect Rebound effect Treatment x Rebound
F 1,23 p F 1,23 p F 1,24 p HC-VEH RD-VEH HC-SSRI RD-SSRI
Total time spent in stage WAKE 0.97 0.3337 2.00 0.1703 0.89 0.3529 2063.0 ± 208.2 2991.0 ± 337.2 2823.0 ± 444.4 3006.0 ± 473.7
NREM sleep 0.0008 0.9772 11.08 0.0029 1.14 0.2963 4325.0 ± 152.8 2921.0 ± 195.7 * 3975.0 ± 430.1 3253.0 ± 367.8
REM sleep 9.18 0.0066 15.85 0.0007 0.10 0.7502 680.8 ± 58.8 1470.0 ± 160.9 * 401.7 ± 69.0 940.6 ± 236.3
  SLEEP 0.97 0.3335 2.00 0.1706 0.89 0.3527 5136.6 ± 208.2 4209.1 ± 337.2 4376.5 ± 444.8 4193.7 ± 473.7
Number of stage episodes WAKE 1.45 0.2393 2.03 0.1673 0.08 0.7757 44.5 ± 5.3 39.2 ± 4.5 40.2 ± 3.8 32.4 ± 4.5
NREM sleep 0.96 0.3354 0.08 0.7717 <0.0001 0.9924 71.5 ± 16.5 74.8 ± 9.5 60.7 ± 6.1 63.8 ± 11.2
REM sleep 7.56 0.0117 25.22 <0.0001 0.71 0.4071 11.4 ± 0.7 16.1 ± 0.4 5.0 ± 1.1 13.43 ± 2.0 ##
  SLEEP 0.63 0.4330 1.71 0.2035 0.26 0.6119 71.5 ± 17.3 53.1 ± 7.5 58.2 ± 6.2 50.2 ± 7.9
Average duration of stage episodes WAKE 0.75 0.3925 2.84 0.1024 0.15 0.7013 34.6 ± 6.0 64.5 ± 14.8 52.6 ± 12.2 71.4 ± 18.8
NREM sleep 0.08 0.7756 5.74 0.0250 0.65 0.4284 74.27 ± 14.0 43.5 ± 7.1 69.3 ± 11.0 54.0 ± 4.7
REM sleep 0.19 0.6664 13.49 0.0015 0.04 0.8299 41.6 ± 6.8 25.1 ± 4.1 44.8 ± 4.0 26.2 ± 4.2 #
  SLEEP 0.05 0.8139 0.24 0.6229 0.09 0.7580 88.8 ± 16.4 91.8 ± 18.3 79.9 ± 12.2 93.0 ± 16.91
Sleep fragmentation 0.64 0.4308 1.72 0.2022 0.28 0.5997 71.0 ± 17.4 52.4 ± 7.4 57.5 ± 6.2 49.7 ± 7.8
REM sleep latency 5.05 0.0359 16.53 0.0006 0.10 0.7519 1285.6 ± 171.6 280.0 ± 57.1 * 2755.4 ± 480.7 1187.4 ± 410.7 #
Sleep (SWS-1) latency 0.06 0.7992 0.38 0.5385 2.54 0.1244 820.7 ± 189.5 1321.0 ± 229.3 1122 ± 257.1 903.4 ± 206.9
First REM item 0.30 0.5848 0.15 0.7005 0.50 0.4860 78.4 ± 17.2 102.0 ± 24.5 81.7 ± 20.5 74.8 ± 20.4
  1. Significant effects of two-way ANOVA statistics are highlighted in bold.
  2. * p < 0.05 indicates significant Tukey s post hoc comparisons compared to the HC-VEH group; #p < 0.05 and ##p < 0.01 represent significant Tukey s post hoc comparisons compared to the HC-SSRI group; Data represent mean ± SEM values of 6-7 animals.
  3. Mean values indicate time (seconds) in the cases of total time spent in stages, average duration of stages, REM sleep latency (the time elapsed from the start of sleep until the first occurrence of REM sleep), sleep (SWS-1) latency (the time elapsed between light onset and the first occurrence of SWS-1) and first REM item (the length of the first uninterrupted REM and IS sleep period). Means are numbers in the cases of number of stage episodes (at least 4 sec long) and sleep fragmentation (the sum of the number of AW and PW episodes that disconnected any sleep periods).
  4. Groups: home cage plus chronic vehicle treatment (HC-VEH); home cage plus chronic escitalopram treatment (HC-SSRI); REM sleep deprivation plus chronic vehicle treatment (RD-VEH); REM sleep deprivation plus chronic escitalopram treatment (RD-SSRI).