Rat ADSC Characterization. Rat ADSC were passaged for 3–5 times after initial plating of the primary culture. A: Under phase contrast, cultured rat ADSC are spindle-shaped. B, C: Rat ADSC could undergo multi-lineage differentiation, including osteogenesis (B) and adipogenesis (C), as visualized by staining with Alizarin Red S and Oil-Red O, respectively. D, E: Immunocytochemistry of rat ADSC within 3–5 passages. About 5 ± 3% of rat ADSC express neural stem cell marker nestin (D), whereas almost all of the rat ADSC express mesodermal marker fibronectin (E). Nuclei are labeled with DAPI (blue). Bar, A: 50 μm; B-E: 50 μm.