Morphological dynamics in the endoplasmic reticulum of live astrocytes and neurones transduced with LV-pIN-KDEL. Rat astrocytes in dissociated culture (top panels) and cortical neurones in organotypic brain slice (Bottom panels; 2.5× magnified inset) were treated with LV-pIN-KDEL and imaged at 48–72 h post transduction (Materials and Methods). Images were recorded sequentially from a single astrocyte or neurone at a rate of 2 frames per minute (Supplemental movies 2 and 3, respectively). Individual frames are shown corresponding to the indicated capture times. To facilitate the visualisation of alterations in EGFP intensity corresponding to changes in ER morphology, all images were processed using the ratio look-up table facility in Image J. Areas showing changes in ER morphology are indicated by arrowheads. Images of the neurone are shown as pairs corresponding to a low magnification frame (Scale bar: 30 μm) and at 2.5× higher magnification (inset left) of the boxed area shown at t = 0'.