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Table 1 Comparison of phenotypic abnormalities observed in gene targeted β3 gene knockout mice

From: New insight into the role of the β3 subunit of the GABAA-R in development, behavior, body weight regulation, and anesthesia revealed by conditional gene knockout

Phenotype Global knockout Pan-neuronal knockout* Forebrain selective knockout*
Time course of gene inactivation Embryonic day 0 [18] ~Embryonic day 12.5+ ~2 weeks postnatal
Tissue specificity All cells [18] Most neurons Primarily forebrain neurons
Viability ~90% die as neonates [18] ~61% die as neonates ~30% die at 15–25 days of age
Palate ~55% with cleft [18]* Normal Normal
Overt behavior Hyperactive; hyperresponsive [3, 18] Normal Moderate hyperactivity; jumpy
Locomotor activity Increased [3] Not tested Increased
Motor coordination Impaired [3] Not tested Not tested
Seizure-like activity Multiple seizure types [3] None observed Occasional absence-like and convulsive seizures
EEG Abnormal [3, 18] Not tested Not tested
Foot clasping Present [18] Absent Absent
Fertility Normal [18] Normal Reduced
Maternal behavior Impaired [18] Normal Impaired
Body size Runted until weaning but most attain normal size by adulthood [18] Normal Some become obese
Food intake Not tested Not tested Increased
Etomidate LORR Reduced [33] Reduced Reduced
Ethanol LORR Normal [33] Normal Normal
Learning and memory Impaired [3] Not tested Normal
Rest-activity cycles Disturbed [3] Not tested Not tested
  1. *, results from present study.