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Figure 4 | BMC Neuroscience

Figure 4

From: Comparative analysis of deutocerebral neuropils in Chilopoda (Myriapoda): implications for the evolution of the arthropod olfactory system and support for the Mandibulata concept

Figure 4

Scolopendromorpha. A Scolopendra oraniensis. B Neurobiotin backfill of the antennal nerve in S. oraniensis showing the olfactory lobe, the corpus lamellosum, and neurite projections (horizontal maximal projection, cLSM scan). C Single optical horizontal section of a Lucifer yellow backfill in S. oraniensis (cLSM scan). Antennal neurites cross each other in a sorting zone and project into different neuropils. The arrow marks the structural composition of the corpus lamellosum in which single lamellae are weakly noticeable. The large ventral OG is visible in this section. Single olfactory glomeruli in the olfactory lobe are arranged like in a grape. D Neurobiotin backfill of the antennal nerve of S. oraniensis. Only a subpopulation of the antennal neurites and olfactory glomeruli is labeled (horizontal maximal projection, cLSM scan). E 3D reconstruction of the brain of Scolopendra subspinipes (dorsal protocerebrum is not shown) with deutocerebral neuropils. Blue = olfactory glomeruli, yellow = corpus lamellosum. F 3D reconstruction of deutocerebral neuropils of Scolopendra oraniensis combined with volume rendering of the antennal backfill in B. Three enlarged ventral glomeruli (I, II, III) are present. G Cryptops hortensis. H Single horizontal optical sections (cLSM) of a neurobiotin backfill of the right antennal nerve in C. hortensis from dorsal to ventral. Antennal nerve bundles and innervation of single olfactory glomeruli. H' Sorting zone (arrow) of antennal neurites and corpus lamellosum. H'' Larger ventral olfactory glomerulus (arrow) and neurite projections. I 3D reconstruction of the brain of C. hortensis with deutocerebral neuropils and midline neuropil. Contralateral connection of the CL is not shown. Blue = olfactory glomeruli, yellow = corpus lamellosum, red = midline neuropil. J Lateral view of the 3D reconstruction in I. Two enlarged ventral glomeruli (I, II) are present. Abbreviations: cec circumesophageal connectives, cl corpus lamellosum, mn midline neuropil, na nervus antennalis, np neurite projections, ol olfactory lobe, pc protocerebrum, pcg protocerebral gland, seg subesophageal ganglion, sz sorting zone, vog ventral olfactory glomerulus. Scalebars: A and F = 10 mm, B-D, G = 100 μm.

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