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Table 1 Mean values of finger-tip and key velocities, and joint angles at the finger-key-contact and key-bottom moments

From: Control of multi-joint arm movements for the manipulation of touch in keystroke by expert pianists

  Pressed Struck ANOVA results
Variables piano forte piano forte Touch
F(1,6)
Loudness
F(1,6)
Touch × Loudness
F(1,6)
Peak descending velocity (mm/s)        
Finger-tip 466(292) 576(299) 578(275) 748(238) 6.6 * 14.1 ** 0.5
Key 268(119) 330(142) 213(34) 317(91) 5.2 80.1 ** 7.0
Joint angle at key contact (rad)        
Attack angle 1.80(0.16) 1.80(0.22) 1.92(0.13) 1.91(0.18) 9.6 * 0.0 0.3
Finger 6.16(0.09) 6.15(0.08) 6.02(0.13) 6.01(0.13) 18.9 ** 0.3 0.2
Wrist 6.15(0.03) 6.16(0.03) 6.17(0.08) 6.18(0.05) 1.4 1.5 0.1
Elbow 1.43(0.13) 1.43(0.13) 1.45(0.16) 1.47(0.15) 4.9 1.9 6.0*
Shoulder 4.91(0.04) 4.89(0.10) 4.92(0.10) 4.93(0.10) 3.5 0.0 3.4
Joint angle at key lowest (rad)        
Attack angle 1.90(0.21) 1.88(0.24) 1.87(0.32) 1.89(0.38) 0.1 0.0 2.6
Finger 6.08(0.13) 6.09(0.11) 6.09(0.06) 6.07(0.09) 0.0 0.3 1.4
Wrist 6.14(0.10) 6.12(0.10) 6.17(0.09 6.17(0.08) 4.8 2.0 1.6
Elbow 1.41(0.10) 1.41(0.11) 1.40(0.11) 1.39(0.10) 4.4 1.0 0.3
Shoulder 4.95(0.08) 4.94(0.08) 4.92(0.10) 4.94(0.10) 1.1 0.2 1.0
  1. The numbers in the parenthesis indicate the standard deviation. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01