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Table 1 Four situations in which pseudoreplication can arise.

From: The problem of pseudoreplication in neuroscientific studies: is it affecting your analysis?

Situation Example Solutions
Repeated measures Growth curve 1. Include subject as a random effect
   2. Repeated measures ANOVA
   3. Summary-measure analysis
Hierarchical/nested Multiple brain sections 1. Include random effects
  Multiple coverslips/wells 2. Average over observations
  Litter effects  
Correlated in time Time of day testing occurs 1. Include time as covariate
  Circadian effects 2. Include sample number as a covariate
Correlated in space Multiple incubators 1. Include random effects
  Cage effects 2. Average over observations