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Table 1 Four situations in which pseudoreplication can arise.

From: The problem of pseudoreplication in neuroscientific studies: is it affecting your analysis?




Repeated measures

Growth curve

1. Include subject as a random effect


2. Repeated measures ANOVA


3. Summary-measure analysis


Multiple brain sections

1. Include random effects


Multiple coverslips/wells

2. Average over observations


Litter effects


Correlated in time

Time of day testing occurs

1. Include time as covariate


Circadian effects

2. Include sample number as a covariate

Correlated in space

Multiple incubators

1. Include random effects


Cage effects

2. Average over observations