Bis(7)-tacrine reduces glutamate(Glu)-induced apoptosis of RGCs in vitro. RGCs were cultured with and without glutamate for 6-24 h in the presence or absence of bis(7)-tacrine (0.01-1 μM) or memantine (1-10 μM). Percentage of apopotic cells was detected by Annexin-V FITC/PI staining by flow cytometry. Apoptotic cells included Annexin V(+)/PI(-) and Annexin V(+)/PI(+) cells. Results were expressed as the means ± SEM of 7 independent experiments. (*P < 0.05 as compared to the control group for each time point; # P < 0.05 as compared to the glutamate group for each time point).