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Table 1 Neuropsychological follow-up data (N = 36)

From: Practice effects in healthy adults: A longitudinal study on frequent repetitive cognitive testing

       ANOVA for repeated measures       
  Baseline Week 2-3 Week 6 Week 9 Month 3     Month 6 Month 12   
Test parameter Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD F 4.32 § p 1 d Mean SD Mean SD F 2.34 p 2
ATTENTION              0.69       
TAP Visual Scanning - critical trials 2401.0 604.8 2041.4 550.1 1908.2 519.9 1782.3 519.4 1712.0 550.1 14.64 <.001 1.19 1782.3 555.8 1728.8 548.6 2.57 .09
Trail Making Test - part A 29.3 10.7 24.9 9.0 24.5 8.9 22.8 8.6 23.3 12.0 4.43 . 006 0.53 22.8 8.2 23.4 7.0 0.44 .65
RBANS Coding 51.6 9.6 56.0 10.6 52.2 9.0 54.5 9.7 55.1 10.0 9.74 <.001 0.36 54.8 10.3 54.9 8.8 0.05 .95
TAP Alertness - with cue sound 265.8 44.8 262.8 60.3 261.9 54.8 258.8 65.9 248.9 64.8 2.39 .07 - 254.4 46.7 264.0 70.3 1.89 .17
RBANS Digit Span 10.8 2.1 10.3 1.8 10.9 1.9 10.8 2.4 10.7 2.0 1.00 .42 - 11.1 2.2 11.3 1.9 2.27 .12
LEARNING AND MEMORY              0.67       
RBANS Figure Recall 16.6 2.9 - - 18.4 2.1 - - 18.4 1.8 11.65 <.001 0.75 18.8 1.3 18.6 1.6 0.57 .57
RBANS List Recall 7.1 2.2 - - 7.9 2.0 - - 8.4 1.6 13.28 <.001 0.68 8.9 1.4 8.4 1.7 2.33 .11
RBANS List Learning 31.3 3.6 - - 32.7 4.5 - - 33.8 3.7 9.05 . 001 0.68 34.8 3.6 33.7 3.7 2.05 .14
RBANS Story Memory 18.1 4.1 - - 18.3 3.5 - - 20.5 2.8 16.74 <.001 0.68 19.8 3.3 19.9 3.7 1.56 .22
RBANS Story Recall 9.6 1.9 - - 9.2 1.7 - - 10.5 1.4 15.79 <.001 0.54 9.9 1.9 10.4 1.6 2.50 .10
RBANS List Recognition 19.8 0.5 - - 19.7 0.6 - - 19.7 0.8 0.54 .59 - 19.7 0.6 19.7 0.7 0.07 .93
EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONS              0.50       
Trail Making Test - part B 70.1 28.5 61.4 29.9 59.7 29.1 52.5 19.5 50.6 22.9 11.68 <.001 0.75 54.8 26.9 53.7 23.7 0.88 .42
WCST-64 - perseverative errors 9.2 4.8 - - 7.4 5.0 - - 6.6 4.2 6.00 . 006 0.58 6.3 4.8 7.2 5.3 0.59 .56
TAP Flexibility 858.9 320.8 783.6 351.8 750.3 325.8 698.0 332.9 697.9 329.9 7.46 <.001 0.49 685.7 345.7 682.0 305.6 0.32 .73
WMS-III Letter Number Sequencing 11.4 2.5 12.3 2.3 12.2 2.3 12.6 2.8 12.7 3.0 6.30 . 001 0.47 12.9 2.7 12.9 2.9 0.19 .83
RWT phonemic verbal fluency 53.6 14.0 60.0 18.0 60.3 16.6 62.8 15.2 56.4 16.1 10.55 <.001 0.19* 61.2 18.2 63.8 18.3 16.38 <.001
TAP Working Memory 568.3 160.4 547.7 144.7 569.6 155.7 565.6 176.5 533.0 150.4 1.55 .21 - 528.3 161.0 533.3 139.3 0.06 .94
MOTOR FUNCTIONS              0.56       
9-Hole Peg Test - dominant hand 18.1 2.5 17.4 2.1 16.8 2.4 16.7 2.2 16.5 2.4 7.11 <.001 0.65 16.4 2.3 16.2 2.0 1.29 .29
Purdue Pegboard Test - assembly 32.4 8.2 33.6 8.5 34.1 8.0 35.0 8.4 36.7 8.3 8.82 <.001 0.52 35.8 9.2 35.5 9.4 1.70 .20
MacQuarrie Tapping 39.2 7.5 41.4 7.0 41.5 7.8 43.0 8.2 43.1 7.7 13.08 <.001 0.51 42.5 8.2 42.3 7.7 1.93 .16
MacQuarrie Dotting 66.3 12.4 70.0 12.1 69.8 12.3 70.1 11.1 71.2 10.3 2.21 .09 - 71.2 12.0 69.5 12.7 1.86 .17
LANGUAGE              0.00       
RBANS Picture Naming 10.0 0.0 - - 9.7 0.5 - - 10.0 0.2 7.76 . 002 0.00* 9.8 0.4 10.0 0.0 4.86 . 01
RBANS Semantic Fluency 23.2 5.2 - - 25.0 4.8 - - 24.4 4.5 2.41 .11 - 25.0 5.2 23.5 5.4 1.62 .21
VISUOSPATIAL FUNCTIONS              -       
RBANS Lines 18.1 2.8 - - 18.5 2.0 - - 18.7 1.5 1.00 .38 - 18.6 1.4 19.0 1.8 1.23 .30
RBANS Figure Copy 19.9 0.4 - - 19.9 0.4 - - 19.9 0.2 0.50 .61 - 19.9 0.4 19.8 0.4 1.33 .28
  1. Significant ANOVA (analysis of variance) time effects bolded. §In case of only 3 testings until month 3, df = 2.34. p 1 displays significance from baseline to month 3; p 2 denotes significance from month 3 to month 12. Cohen's d = (μmonth 3 - μbaseline)/σpooled with d = 0.20-0.49 denoting small, d = 0.50-0.79 moderate, and d ≥ 0.80 large effect sizes. *indicates d < 0.20, i.e. "no effect". Effect sizes presented only if respective differences over time are significant (p < 0.01). Cohen's d for cognitive domains expressed as mean of single-test effect sizes of the respective cognitive domain.
  2. TAP, Test for Attentional Performance; RBANS, Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status; WCST-64, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test - 64 Card Version; WMS-III, Wechsler Memory Scale - 3rd edition; RWT, Regensburger Wortflüssigkeitstest.