(a) Effect of nPLA (0.01 μM) on dose-dependent STS-induced cell death in astrocytoma cells (CRL1718™). Cell viability assay was carried out following 16 hrs exposure to various concentrations of STS or STS + 0.01 μM nPLA. Asterisks denote difference from its each individual STS concentration treatment. Values are expressed as percentage of viability (to the respective treatment without nPLA) ± SEM, * p < 0.05 by unpaired Student's t-test (n = 9). (b) Effect of nPLA on STS-induced cell death by caspase-3 activity assay. Control: no reagents, STS: 1.5 μM STS, STS + nPLA: 1.5 μM STS+0.01 μM nPLA. Data shown are mean ± SEM (n = 18). (c) Effect of nPLA on CRL1718™ astrocytoma cells subjected to OGD. Cells were subjected to 2 hr OGD and nPLA (0.038 μM or 0.01 μM) was added in the culture during the ischemic period. Cell viability assay was carried out following a 24 hr of reperfusion. Caspase-3 assay was carried out on the respective cell lysates. Data shown are mean ± SEM (n = 3, conducted in triplicates, p < 0.05, two tail Student's t test).