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  1. Although previous studies suggest that postural control requires attention and other cognitive resources, the central mechanisms responsible for this relationship remain unclear. To address this issue, we exam...

    Authors: Sylvia Quant, Allan L Adkin, W Richard Staines, Brian E Maki and William E McIlroy

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2004 5:18

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Huntington's disease (HD) is a hereditary neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expanded CAG repeat in the HD gene. Both excitotoxicity and oxidative stress have been proposed to play important roles in the pat...

    Authors: Joana MAC Gil, Marcel Leist, Natalija Popovic, Patrik Brundin and Åsa Petersén

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2004 5:17

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Conserved proteins preferentially expressed in synaptic terminals of the nervous system are likely to play a significant role in brain function. We have previously identified and molecularly characterized the Sap...

    Authors: Natalja Funk, Sonja Becker, Saskia Huber, Marion Brunner and Erich Buchner

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2004 5:16

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Interruption of mature axons activates a cascade of events in neuronal cell bodies which leads to various outcomes from functional regeneration in the PNS to the failure of any significant regeneration in the ...

    Authors: Sebastian Breuer, Katrin Pech, Armin Buss, Christoph Spitzer, Juris Ozols, Elly M Hol, Nicole Heussen, Johannes Noth, Franz-Werner Schwaiger and Andreas B Schmitt

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2004 5:15

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Human brain activity in the gamma frequency range has been shown to be a correlate of numerous cognitive functions like attention, perception and memory access. More specifically, gamma activity has been found...

    Authors: Christoph S Herrmann, Daniel Lenz, Stefanie Junge, Niko A Busch and Burkhard Maess

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2004 5:13

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Apoptosis is important for normal cerebral cortical development. We previously showed that the Fas suicide receptor was expressed within the developing cerebral cortex, and that in vitro Fas activation resulted i...

    Authors: Zulfiqar F Cheema, Daniel R Santillano, Stephen B Wade, Joseph M Newman and Rajesh C Miranda

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2004 5:11

    Content type: Research article

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  7. The neurological complications of HIV infection remain poorly understood. Clinically, in vivo 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) demonstrates brain injury caused by HIV infection even when the MRI is normal...

    Authors: Robert A Fuller, Susan V Westmoreland, Eva Ratai, Jane B Greco, John P Kim, Margaret R Lentz, Julian He, Prabhat K Sehgal, Eliezer Masliah, Elkan Halpern, Andrew A Lackner and R Gilberto González

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2004 5:10

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Many changes in gene expression occur in distal stumps of injured nerves but the transcriptional control of these events is poorly understood. We have examined the expression of the transcription factors ATF3 ...

    Authors: David Hunt, Kismet Hossain-Ibrahim, Matthew RJ Mason, Robert S Coffin, AR Lieberman, Julia Winterbottom and PN Anderson

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2004 5:9

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Tinnitus is an auditory sensation frequently following hearing loss. After cochlear injury, deafferented neurons become sensitive to neighbouring intact edge-frequencies, guiding an enhanced central representa...

    Authors: Nathan Weisz, Sandra Voss, Patrick Berg and Thomas Elbert

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2004 5:8

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Early stages in the excitation cascade of Limulus photoreceptors are mediated by activation of Gq by rhodopsin, generation of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate by phospholipase-C and the release of Ca2+. At the end of...

    Authors: Alexander V Garger, Edwin A Richard and John E Lisman

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2004 5:7

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Growth hormone (GH) plays an incompletely understood role in the development of the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, we use transgenic mice expressing a growth hormone antagonist (GHA) to explore t...

    Authors: DL McIlwain, VB Hoke, JJ Kopchick, CR Fuller and PK Lund

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2004 5:6

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Inactivating genes in vivo is an important technique for establishing their function in the adult nervous system. Unfortunately, conventional knockout mice may suffer from several limitations including embryon...

    Authors: Bushra Y Ahmed, Sridhara Chakravarthy, Ruben Eggers, Wim TJMC Hermens, Jing Ying Zhang, Simone P Niclou, Christiaan Levelt, Fred Sablitzky, Patrick N Anderson, AR Lieberman and Joost Verhaagen

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2004 5:4

    Content type: Research article

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  13. SLOB binds to and modulates the activity of the Drosophila Slowpoke (dSlo) calcium activated potassium channel. Recent microarray analyses demonstrated circadian cycling of slob mRNA.

    Authors: Angela M Jaramillo, Xiangzhong Zheng, Yi Zhou, Defne A Amado, Amanda Sheldon, Amita Sehgal and Irwin B Levitan

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2004 5:3

    Content type: Research article

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  14. The adenine nucleotide translocator 1 (Ant1) is an inner mitochondrial membrane protein involved with energy mobilization during oxidative phosphorylation. We recently showed that rodent Ant1 is upregulated by...

    Authors: Alick KT Law, Deepak Gupta, Shawn Levy, Douglas C Wallace, Robert J McKeon and Charles R Buck

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2004 5:1

    Content type: Research article

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  15. To determine whether early imitative responses fade out following the maturation of attentional mechanisms, the relationship between primitive imitation behaviors and the development of attention was examined ...

    Authors: Atsuko Nakagawa, Masune Sukigara and Oana Benga

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2003 4:33

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Recent data indicate that excitotoxicity of high levels of neurotransmitter glutamate may be mediated via programmed cell death (apoptosis) and that it can be prevented in HT22 mouse hippocampal cells by vario...

    Authors: YueMei Zhang, XiaoFeng Lu and Bhagu R Bhavnani

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2003 4:32

    Content type: Research article

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  17. To understand the functioning of distributed networks such as the brain, it is important to characterize their ability to integrate information. The paper considers a measure based on effective information, a ...

    Authors: Giulio Tononi and Olaf Sporns

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2003 4:31

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Nodes of Ranvier correspond to specialized axonal domains where voltage-gated sodium channels are highly concentrated. In the peripheral nervous system, they are covered by Schwann cells microvilli, where thre...

    Authors: Laurence Goutebroze, Michèle Carnaud, Natalia Denisenko, Marie-Claude Boutterin and Jean-Antoine Girault

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2003 4:29

    Content type: Research article

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  19. L-glutamate, an excitatory neurotransmitter, binds to both ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors. In certain parts of the brain the BBB contains two normally impermeable barriers: 1) cerebral endothe...

    Authors: Christopher D Sharp, M Fowler, TH Jackson IV, J Houghton, A Warren, A Nanda, I Chandler, B Cappell, A Long, A Minagar and JS Alexander

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2003 4:28

    Content type: Research article

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  20. We have developed a culture system for the efficient and directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (HESCs) to neural precursors and neurons.

    Authors: Thomas C Schulz, Gail M Palmarini, Scott A Noggle, Deborah A Weiler, Maisam M Mitalipova and Brian G Condie

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2003 4:27

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Experiencing emotions engages high-order orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal areas, and expressing emotions involves low-level autonomic structures and peripheral organs. How is information from the cortex tra...

    Authors: Helen Barbas, Subhash Saha, Nancy Rempel-Clower and Troy Ghashghaei

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2003 4:25

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Hibernation is a state of extremely reduced physiological functions and a deep depression of CNS activity. We have previously shown that the histamine levels increase in the brain during hibernation, as does t...

    Authors: Tina Sallmen, Adrian F Lozada, Oleg V Anichtchik, Alexander L Beckman and Pertti Panula

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2003 4:24

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Stargazin (γ2) and the closely related γ3, and γ4 transmembrane proteins are part of a family of proteins that may act as both neuronal voltage-dependent calcium channel (VDCC) γ subunits and transmembrane α-amin...

    Authors: Fraser J Moss, Annette C Dolphin and Jeffrey J Clare

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2003 4:23

    Content type: Research article

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  24. The integration of EEG and fMRI is attractive because of their complementary precision regarding time and space. But the relationship between the indirect hemodynamic fMRI signal and the more direct EEG signal...

    Authors: Jack R Foucher, Hélène Otzenberger and Daniel Gounot

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2003 4:22

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Excitotoxic neuronal injury by action of the glutamate receptors of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) subtype have been implicated in the pathogenesis of brain damage as a consequence of bacterial meningitis. Th...

    Authors: Anna Kolarova, Ralph Ringer, Martin G Täuber and Stephen L Leib

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2003 4:21

    Content type: Research article

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  26. The transcription factor AP1 mediates long-term plasticity in vertebrate and invertebrate central nervous systems. Recent studies of activity-induced synaptic change indicate that AP1 can function upstream of ...

    Authors: Subhabrata Sanyal, Radhakrishnan Narayanan, Christos Consoulas and Mani Ramaswami

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2003 4:20

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Peptidergic neurons containing the melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and the hypocretins (or orexins) are intermingled in the zona incerta, perifornical nucleus and lateral hypothalamic area. Both types of n...

    Authors: Laure Verret, Romain Goutagny, Patrice Fort, Laurène Cagnon, Denise Salvert, Lucienne Léger, Romuald Boissard, Paul Salin, Christelle Peyron and Pierre-Hervé Luppi

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2003 4:19

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Axon calibers vary widely among different animals, neuron classes, and even within the same neuron. What determines the diameter of axon branches?

    Authors: Dmitri B Chklovskii and Armen Stepanyants

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2003 4:18

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Previous work suggested that macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) may be involved in bladder inflammation. Therefore, the location of MIF was determined immunohistochemically in the bladder, prostate, ...

    Authors: Pedro L Vera and Katherine L Meyer-Siegler

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2003 4:17

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an age-dependent neurodegenerative disease that causes motor neuron degeneration, paralysis and death. Mutations in Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) are one cause for t...

    Authors: Cynthia MJ Higgins, Cheolwha Jung and Zuoshang Xu

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2003 4:16

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Many molecular studies of ion channel function rely on the ability to obtain high quality voltage clamp recordings using the patch clamp technique. For a variety of channel types studied in mammalian cell hete...

    Authors: Josef G Trapani and Stephen J Korn

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2003 4:15

    Content type: Methodology article

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  32. Disrupting neural migration with bilateral focal freezing necrosis on postnatal day 1 (P1) results in the formation of 4-layered microgyria. This developmental injury triggers a pervasive neural reorganization...

    Authors: Ann M Peiffer, R Holly Fitch, Jennifer J Thomas, Alexandra N Yurkovic and Glenn D Rosen

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2003 4:12

    Content type: Research article

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  33. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) interact with heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (G proteins) to modulate acute changes in intracellular messenger levels and ion channel activity. In contrast, long-term c...

    Authors: Joyce H Hurley, Shengwen Zhang, Leighan S Bye, Mark S Marshall, Anna A DePaoli-Roach, Kunliang Guan, Aaron P Fox and Lei Yu

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2003 4:10

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Changes in photoperiod and ambient temperature trigger seasonal adaptations in the physiology and behaviour of many species, including the Djungarian hamster. Exposure of the hamsters to a short photoperiod an...

    Authors: Svitlana Palchykova, Tom Deboer and Irene Tobler

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2003 4:9

    Content type: Research article

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  35. It is well known that neurons of the peripheral nervous system have the capacity to regenerate a severed axon leading to functional recovery, whereas neurons of the central nervous system do not regenerate suc...

    Authors: Andreas B Schmitt, Sebastian Breuer, Jan Liman, Armin Buss, Christiane Schlangen, Katrin Pech, Elly M Hol, Gary A Brook, Johannes Noth and Franz-Werner Schwaiger

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2003 4:8

    Content type: Research article

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  36. The importance of L1 expression in the matured brain is suggested by physiological and behavioral studies showing that L1 is related to hippocampal plasticity and fear conditioning. The distribution of L1 in m...

    Authors: Hana Munakata, Yukiko Nakamura, Kazumasa Matsumoto-Miyai, Kouichi Itoh, Hironobu Yamasaki and Sadao Shiosaka

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2003 4:7

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Nuclear objects that have in common the property of being recognized by monoclonal antibodies specific for phosphoprotein epitopes and cytoplasmic intermediate filaments (in particular, SMI-31 and RT-97) have ...

    Authors: Shannon E Weigum, Dana M García, Timothy D Raabe, Nicholas Christodoulides and Joseph R Koke

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2003 4:6

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Alteration of glutamate and γ-aminobutyrate system have been reported to be associated with neurodegenerative disorders and have been postulated to be involved in aluminum-induced neurotoxicity as well. Alumin...

    Authors: Prasunpriya Nayak and Ajay K Chatterjee

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2003 4:4

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Using an indirect immunoperoxidase technique, we have studied the distribution of immunoreactive fibers and cell bodies containing neurokinin in the adult human brainstem with no prior history of neurological ...

    Authors: Rafael Coveñas, Francisco Martin, Magdalena Belda, Victor Smith, Pablo Salinas, Eva Rivada, Zaida Diaz-Cabiale, Jose Angel Narvaez, Pilar Marcos, Gerard Tramu and Salvador Gonzalez-Baron

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2003 4:3

    Content type: Research article

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