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Neurobiology of disease

Section edited by Karsten Ruscher

This section covers the neurobiological aspects of diseases that can affect the brain. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to, neuroinflammation, neurodegenerative pathophysiology, neurogenesis and experimental brain research. Diseases range across neurodegeneration, demyelinating conditions, addiction, psychiatric conditions, stroke and spinal cord conditions.

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  1. Real-time reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a critical tool for evaluating the levels of mRNA transcribed from genes. Reliable RT-qPCR results largely depend on normaliz...

    Authors: Yingbo Kang, Zhuomin Wu, De Cai and Binger Lu

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2018 19:3

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by the deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) in brain parenchyma and cerebral blood vessels as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). Clusterin, a chaperon protein associated with ...

    Authors: Xue-Mei Qi, Cheng Wang, Xing-Kun Chu, Gen Li and Jian-Fang Ma

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2018 19:2

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Activated microglia interact with astrocytes and neuronal cells to induce neuroinflammation, which can contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. To identify the mos...

    Authors: Lalita Subedi, Oh Wook Kwon, Chaeho Pak, Goeun Lee, Kangwoo Lee, Hakwon Kim and Sun Yeou Kim

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2017 18:82

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Obesity induced brain inflammation is associated with cognitive disorders. We aimed to investigate the influence of vitamin D on hypothalamus and hippocampus inflammatory response in high-fat diet induced obes...

    Authors: Mahdieh Abbasalizad Farhangi, Mehran Mesgari-Abbasi, Ghazaleh Nameni, Ghazaleh Hajiluian and Parviz Shahabi

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2017 18:81

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with an increased risk of cerebrovascular diseases, including cerebral ischemia. Microvascular dysfunction is an important feature underlying the pathophysiology of cere...

    Authors: Nathalie Obadia, Marcos Adriano Lessa, Anissa Daliry, Raquel Rangel Silvares, Fabiana Gomes, Eduardo Tibiriçá and Vanessa Estato

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2017 18:67

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Hair cell loss in the cochlea is caused by ototoxic drugs, aging, and environmental stresses and could potentially lead to devastating pathophysiological effects. In adult mammals, hair cell loss is irreversib...

    Authors: Takahiro Wakasaki, Hiroaki Niiro, Siamak Jabbarzadeh-Tabrizi, Mitsuru Ohashi, Takashi Kimitsuki, Takashi Nakagawa, Shizuo Komune and Koichi Akashi

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2017 18:64

    Content type: Research article

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  7. In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the loss of the dystrophin component of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC) compromises plasma membrane integrity in skeletal muscle, resulting in extensive muscle d...

    Authors: Azeez Aranmolate, Nathaniel Tse and Holly Colognato

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2017 18:63

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Following partial injury to the central nervous system, cells beyond the initial injury site undergo secondary degeneration, exacerbating loss of neurons, compact myelin and function. Changes in Ca2+ flux are ass...

    Authors: Ryan L. O’Hare Doig, Wissam Chiha, Marcus K. Giacci, Nathanael J. Yates, Carole A. Bartlett, Nicole M. Smith, Stuart I. Hodgetts, Alan R. Harvey and Melinda Fitzgerald

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2017 18:62

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Sesamin is a well-known antioxidant extracted from sesame seeds that exhibits various curative effects. The present study investigated whether sesamin would protect neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells against mechanic...

    Authors: Zhiming Xu, Yingliang Liu, Dianxu Yang, Fang Yuan, Jun Ding, Hao Chen and Hengli Tian

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2017 18:57

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Systemic inflammation and white matter (WM) alterations have been noted as effects of Parkinson’s disease (PD). This study sought to evaluate WM integrity in PD patients using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) an...

    Authors: Pi-Ling Chiang, Hsiu-Ling Chen, Cheng-Hsien Lu, Pei-Chin Chen, Meng-Hsiang Chen, I.-Hsiao Yang, Nai-Wen Tsai and Wei-Che Lin

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2017 18:48

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Sirtuins (SIRTs) are NAD+ dependent lysine deacetylases which are conserved from bacteria to humans and have been associated with longevity and lifespan extension. SIRT1, the best studied mammalian SIRT is invol...

    Authors: Preeti Singh, Peter S. Hanson and Christopher M. Morris

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2017 18:46

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Mice lacking Kalirin-7 (Kal7KO), a Rho GDP/GTP exchange factor, self-administer cocaine at a higher rate than wildtype mice, and show an exaggerated locomotor response to experimenter-administered cocaine. Kal7, ...

    Authors: Taylor P. LaRese, Yan Yan, Betty A. Eipper and Richard E. Mains

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2017 18:45

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Astaxanthin (ATX) is a carotenoid pigment with pleiotropic pharmacological properties that is seen as a possible drug for treating cerebral ischemic injury and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Na+–K+–2Cl co-transporter-...

    Authors: Mingkun Zhang, Zhenwen Cui, Hua Cui, Yong Wang and Chunlong Zhong

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2017 18:42

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Recent rodent and human studies provide evidence in support of the fact that CD157, well known as bone marrow stromal cell antigen-1 (BST-1) and a risk factor in Parkinson’s disease, also meaningfully acts in ...

    Authors: Haruhiro Higashida, Mingkun Liang, Toru Yoshihara, Shirin Akther, Azam Fakhrul, Cherepanov Stanislav, Tae-Sik Nam, Uh-Hyun Kim, Satoka Kasai, Tomoko Nishimura, Naila Al Mahmuda, Shigeru Yokoyama, Katsuhiko Ishihara, Maria Gerasimenko, Alla Salmina, Jing Zhong…

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2017 18:35

    Content type: Research article

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  15. The possibility of using deep brain stimulation (DBS) for memory enhancement has recently been reported, but the precise underlying mechanisms of its effects remain unknown. Our previous study suggested that s...

    Authors: Da Un Jeong, Jihyeon Lee, Won Seok Chang and Jin Woo Chang

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2017 18:29

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Synucleinopathies such as Parkinson’s disease or multiple system atrophy are characterized by Lewy bodies in distinct brain areas. These aggregates are mainly formed by α-synuclein inclusions, a protein crucia...

    Authors: R. Rabl, C. Breitschaedel, S. Flunkert, S. Duller, D. Amschl, J. Neddens, V. Niederkofler, E. Rockenstein, E. Masliah, H. Roemer and B. Hutter-Paier

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2017 18:22

    Content type: Research article

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  17. TDP-43 aggregates accumulate in individuals affected by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and other neurodegenerative diseases, representing potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets. Using an atomic forc...

    Authors: Stephanie M. Williams, Galam Khan, Brent T. Harris, John Ravits and Michael R. Sierks

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2017 18:20

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) provides non-invasive information about the metabolic pattern of the brain parenchyma in vivo. The SpectraClassifier software performs MRS pattern-recognition by determin...

    Authors: Elena Jiménez-Xarrié, Myriam Davila, Ana Paula Candiota, Raquel Delgado-Mederos, Sandra Ortega-Martorell, Margarida Julià-Sapé, Carles Arús and Joan Martí-Fàbregas

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2017 18:13

    Content type: Research article

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  19. The fractalkine/CX3C chemokine receptor 1 (CX3CR1) pathway has been identified to play an essential role in the chemotaxis of microglia, leukocyte trafficking and microglia/macrophage recruitment. It has also bee...

    Authors: Gerlinde van der Maten, Vivien Henck, Tadeusz Wieloch and Karsten Ruscher

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2017 18:11

    Content type: Research Article

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  20. Ultraviolet B irradiation confers strong resistance against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a model of multiple sclerosis. This protection by ultraviolet B is independent of vitamin D production but...

    Authors: Amy A. Irving, Steven J. Marling, Lori A. Plum and Hector F. DeLuca

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2017 18:8

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the current-state-of-the-art technique to clinically investigate acute (0–24 h) ischemic stroke tissue. However, reduced apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC)—cons...

    Authors: Friedrich Wetterling, Eva Chatzikonstantinou, Laurent Tritschler, Stephen Meairs, Marc Fatar, Lothar R. Schad and Saema Ansar

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:82

    Content type: Research Article

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  22. Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a widely used animal model for multiple sclerosis. The characteristic feature of the MOG-EAE model in Brown...

    Authors: Sabine Herold, Prateek Kumar, Klaus Jung, Irina Graf, Henrike Menkhoff, Xenia Schulz, Mathias Bähr and Katharina Hein

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:78

    Content type: Research Article

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  23. α-Synuclein (αSYN) has been genetically implicated in familial and sporadic Parkinson’s disease (PD), and is associated with disease susceptibility, progression and pathology. Excess amounts of αSYN are toxic ...

    Authors: Tatsunori Maekawa, Toshikuni Sasaoka, Sadahiro Azuma, Takafumi Ichikawa, Heather L. Melrose, Matthew J. Farrer and Fumiya Obata

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:77

    Content type: Research Article

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  24. Sleep disruptions are common in epilepsy patients. Our previous study demonstrates that homeostatic factors and circadian rhythm may mediate epilepsy-induced sleep disturbances when epilepsy occurs at differen...

    Authors: Tzu-Rung Huang, Shuo-Bin Jou, Yu-Ju Chou, Pei-Lu Yi, Chun-Jen Chen and Fang-Chia Chang

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:74

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological diseases characterized by excessive hyperexcitability of neurons. Molecular mechanisms of epilepsy are diverse and not really understood. All in common is the mi...

    Authors: Helena F. Pernice, Rico Schieweck, Michael A. Kiebler and Bastian Popper

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:73

    Content type: Review

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  26. Cone photoreceptors are specialised sensory retinal neurons responsible for photopic vision, colour perception and visual acuity. Retinal degenerative diseases are a heterogeneous group of eye diseases in whic...

    Authors: Antonino Glaviano, Andrew J. Smith, Alfonso Blanco, Sarah McLoughlin, Maria L. Cederlund, Theresa Heffernan, Beata Sapetto-Rebow, Yolanda Alvarez, Jun Yin and Breandán N. Kennedy

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:71

    Content type: Methodology article

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  27. Fused in sarcoma (FUS) is an RNA-binding protein associated with the neurodegenerative diseases amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. ALS manifests in patients as a progres...

    Authors: Kasey L. Jackson, Hemangini A. Dhaibar, Robert D. Dayton, Sergio G. Cananzi, William G. Mayhan, Edward Glasscock and Ronald L. Klein

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:69

    Content type: Research article

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  28. There is evidence that experimentally elicited auditory illusions in the general population index risk for psychotic symptoms. As little is known about underlying cortical mechanisms of auditory illusions, an ...

    Authors: E. Schepers, L. Bodar, J. van Os and R. Lousberg

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:65

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Bilateral adrenalectomy has been shown to damage the hippocampal neurons. Although the effects of long-term adrenalectomy have been studied extensively there are few publications on the effects of short-term a...

    Authors: Naserddine Hamadi, Azimullah Sheikh, Nather Madjid, Loai Lubbad, Naheed Amir, Safa Al-Deen Saudi Shehab, Fatima Khelifi-Touhami and Abdu Adem

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:61

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Astaxanthin is a carotenoid pigment that possesses potent antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and immunomodulatory activities. Previous studies have demonstrated that astaxanthin displays potential ne...

    Authors: Mingkun Zhang, Zhenwen Cui, Hua Cui, Yang Cao, Yong Wang and Chunlong Zhong

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:60

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Parkinson disease (PD) is a movement disorder affecting 1 % of people over the age of 60. The etiology of the disease is unknown; however, accumulating evidence suggests that mitochondrial defects, oxidative s...

    Authors: Hayate Javed, Sheikh Azimullah, Salema B. Abul Khair, Shreesh Ojha and M. Emdadul Haque

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:58

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Recurrent convulsions can cause irreversible astrocyte death, impede neuron regeneration, and further aggravate brain damage. MicroRNAs have been revealed as players in the progression of numerous diseases inc...

    Authors: Liqun Liu, Lingjuan Liu, Jiayun Shi, Menglin Tan, Jie Xiong, Xingfang Li, Qingpeng Hu, Zhuwen Yi and Ding’an Mao

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:56

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Amyloid-beta (Aβ) accumulation is a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) that can lead to neuronal dysfunction and apoptosis. Tumor necrosis factor, alpha-induced protein 1 (TNFAIP1) is an apoptotic protein th...

    Authors: Ning Liu, Zhanyang Yu, Yu Xun, Miaomiao Li, Xiaoning Peng, Ye Xiao, Xiang Hu, Yi Sun, Manjun Yang, Shiquan Gan, Shishan Yuan, Xiaoying Wang, Shuanglin Xiang and Jian Zhang

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:51

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Peripheral neuropathy is a common and dose-limiting side effect of many cancer chemotherapies. The taxane agents, including paclitaxel (Taxol®), are effective chemotherapeutic drugs but cause degeneration of pred...

    Authors: Aniqa Tasnim, Zoe Rammelkamp, Amy B. Slusher, Krystyna Wozniak, Barbara S. Slusher and Mohamed H. Farah

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:47

    Content type: Research article

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  35. We previously reported the production of transgenic rats (APP21 line) that over-express human amyloid precursor protein (APP) containing Swedish and Indiana mutations. In order to generate a better model for A...

    Authors: Cansu Agca, Diana Klakotskaia, Todd R. Schachtman, Anthony W. Chan, James J. Lah and Yuksel Agca

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:46

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Murine models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are mainly based on overexpression of pathologic amyloid precursor protein and/or presenilins. Those genes resemble underlying cause of early onset type of AD while ab...

    Authors: Kristina Endres, Sven Reinhardt, Anastasia Geladaris, Julia Knies, Marcus Grimm, Tobias Hartmann and Ulrich Schmitt

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:44

    Content type: Research article

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  37. After spinal cord (SC)-injury, a non-modulated immune response contributes to the damage of neural tissue. Protective autoimmunity (PA) is a T cell mediated, neuroprotective response induced after SC-injury. ...

    Authors: Susana Martiñón, Elisa García-Vences, Diana Toscano-Tejeida, Adrian Flores-Romero, Roxana Rodriguez-Barrera, Manuel Ferrusquia, Rolando E. Hernández-Muñoz and Antonio Ibarra

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:42

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Kainic acid (KA)-induced excitotoxicity promotes cytoplasmic calcium accumulation, oxidative stress, and apoptotic signaling, leading to hippocampal neuronal death. Mitochondria play a critical role in neuroin...

    Authors: Hwajin Kim, Jong Youl Lee, Keon Jae Park, Won-Ho Kim and Gu Seob Roh

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:33

    Content type: Research article

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Neuroscience 2017 18:16

  39. Canine intervertebral disc πherniation causes a naturally-occurring spinal cord injury (SCI) that bears critical similarities to human SCI with respect to both injury pathomechanisms and treatment. As such, it...

    Authors: Rae L. Russell, Jonathan M. Levine, Nick D. Jeffery, Colin Young, Armando Mondragon, Bryan Lee, C. Elizabeth Boudreau, C. Jane Welsh and Gwendolyn J. Levine

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:31

    Content type: Research article

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  40. In the current study, a transient cerebral ischemia producing selective cell death was designated a mild ischemic insult. A comparable insult in humans is a transient ischemic attack (TIA) that is associated with...

    Authors: Ursula I. Tuor, Zonghang Zhao, Philip A. Barber and Min Qiao

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:28

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Anorexia can occur as a serious complication of disease. Increasing evidence suggests that inflammation plays a major role, along with a hypothalamic dysregulation characterized by locally elevated serotonin l...

    Authors: J. T. Dwarkasing, R. F. Witkamp, M. V. Boekschoten, M. C. Ter Laak, M. S. Heins and K. van Norren

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:26

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Red/near-infrared light therapy (R/NIR-LT) has been developed as a treatment for a range of conditions, including injury to the central nervous system (CNS). However, clinical trials have reported variable or ...

    Authors: Bethany Eve Ashworth, Emma Stephens, Carole A. Bartlett, Stylianos Serghiou, Marcus K. Giacci, Anna Williams, Nathan S. Hart and Melinda Fitzgerald

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:21

    Content type: Research article

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  43. We recently reported that poly-arginine peptides have neuroprotective properties both in vitro and in vivo. In cultured cortical neurons exposed to glutamic acid excitotoxicity, we demonstrated that neuroprote...

    Authors: Diego Milani, Vince W. Clark, Jane L. Cross, Ryan S. Anderton, Neville W. Knuckey and Bruno P. Meloni

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:19

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Regeneration of new myelin is impaired in persistent multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions, leaving neurons unable to function properly and subject to further degeneration. Current MS therapies attempt to ameliorate...

    Authors: Karen D. Lariosa-Willingham, Elen S. Rosler, Jay S. Tung, Jason C. Dugas, Tassie L. Collins and Dmitri Leonoudakis

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:16

    Content type: Methodology article

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  45. Glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) inactivates the peptide co-transmitter N-acetylaspartylglutamate following synaptic release. Inhibition of GCPII elevates extracellular levels of the peptide, inhibits glutam...

    Authors: Yang Cao, Yang Gao, Siyi Xu, Jingang Bao, Yingying Lin, Xingguang Luo, Yong Wang, Qizhong Luo, Jiyao Jiang, Joseph H. Neale and Chunlong Zhong

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:15

    Content type: Research article

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  46. It has been demonstrated that the zebrafish model of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-evoked seizures and the well-established rodent models of epilepsy are similar pertaining to behavior, electrographic features, and c-

    Authors: Patrícia Gonçalves Barbalho, Iscia Lopes-Cendes and Claudia Vianna Maurer-Morelli

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:12

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Spinal cord edema is a serious complication and pathophysiological change after ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury. It has been demonstrated closely associated with bimodal disruption of blood–spinal cord barrie...

    Authors: Xiao-Qian Li, Bo Fang, Wen-Fei Tan, Zhi-Lin Wang, Xi-Jia Sun, Zai-Li Zhang and Hong Ma

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:10

    Content type: Research article

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