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Cellular and molecular mechanisms

In this section topics of interest include, but are not limited to, neurotransmitters, neurotransmission, gliotransmission, synaptic transmission, neuropsychopharmacology, cell signaling, neurophysiology, neurogenetics and neurogenomics.

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  1. Activation of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA) to prostaglandins have been shown to play an important role in neuronal death in neurodegenerative disease. Here we rep...

    Authors: Victoria Last, Alun Williams and Dirk Werling

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2012 13:106

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the major events responsible for activation of neuronal cell death pathways during cerebral ischemia. Trace element selenium has been shown to protect neurons in various dis...

    Authors: Suresh L Mehta, Santosh Kumari, Natalia Mendelev and P Andy Li

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2012 13:79

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Exposure to ethanol during early development triggers severe neuronal death by activating multiple stress pathways and causes neurological disorders, such as fetal alcohol effects or fetal alcohol syndrome. Th...

    Authors: Ikram Ullah, Najeeb Ullah, Muhammad Imran Naseer, Hae Young Lee and Myeong OK Kim

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2012 13:11

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Antidepressants promote neuronal structural plasticity in young-adult rodents, but little is known of their effects on older animals. The polysialylated form of the neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) may...

    Authors: Ramon Guirado, David Sanchez-Matarredona, Emilo Varea, Carlos Crespo, José Miguel Blasco-Ibáñez and Juan Nacher

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2012 13:5

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Neuronal regeneration in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) is severely compromised due to the presence of extrinsic inhibitory signals and a reduced intrinsic regenerative capacity. In contrast,...

    Authors: Mila Aleksic and Zhong-Ping Feng

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2012 13:2

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Nestin-immunoreactive (nestin-ir) neurons have been identified in the medial septal/diagonal band complex (MS/DBB) of adult rat and human, but the significance of nestin expression in functional neurons is not...

    Authors: Jianhua Zhu, Huaiyu Gu, Zhibin Yao, Juntao Zou, Kaihua Guo, Dongpei Li and Tianming Gao

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2011 12:129

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Dendritic spines represent the postsynaptic component of the vast majority of excitatory synapses present in the mammalian forebrain. The ability of spines to rapidly alter their shape, size, number and recept...

    Authors: Fouad Lemtiri-Chlieh, Liangfang Zhao, Drew D Kiraly, Betty A Eipper, Richard E Mains and Eric S Levine

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2011 12:126

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Chronic neuropathic pain is an intractable pain with few effective treatments. Moderate cold stimulation can relieve pain, and this may be a novel train of thought for exploring new methods of analgesia. Trans...

    Authors: Lin Su, Chao Wang, Yong-hao Yu, Yong-ying Ren, Ke-liang Xie and Guo-lin Wang

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2011 12:120

    Content type: Research article

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  9. The aim of this study was to assess the distribution of key SNARE proteins in glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses of the adult rat cerebellar cortex using light microscopy immunohistochemical techniques. Anal...

    Authors: Vincenzo Benagiano, Loredana Lorusso, Paolo Flace, Francesco Girolamo, Anna Rizzi, Lorenzo Bosco, Raffaele Cagiano, Beatrice Nico, Domenico Ribatti and Glauco Ambrosi

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2011 12:118

    Content type: Research article

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  10. The Fat mass and obesity gene (FTO) has been identified through genome wide association studies as an important genetic factor contributing to a higher body mass index (BMI). However, the molecular context in ...

    Authors: Mathias Rask-Andersen, Markus Sällman Almén, Hans R Olausen, Pawel K Olszewski, Jenny Eriksson, Rohit A Chavan, Allen S Levine, Robert Fredriksson and Helgi B Schiöth

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2011 12:117

    Content type: Research article

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  11. We previously demonstrated nociceptive discharges to be evoked by mechanical noxious stimulation in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The nociceptive responses recorded in the PFC are conceivably involved in the af...

    Authors: Kitaro Onozawa, Yuki Yagasaki, Yumi Izawa, Hiroyuki Abe and Yoriko Kawakami

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2011 12:115

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Thrombolysis after acute ischemic stroke has only proven to be beneficial in a subset of patients. The soluble recombinant analogue of human thrombomodulin, Solulin, was studied in an in vivo rat model of acute i...

    Authors: Yu-Mi Ryang, Jon Dang, Markus Kipp, Karl-Uwe Petersen, Astrid V Fahlenkamp, Jens Gempt, Dominik Wesp, Rolf Rossaint, Cordian Beyer and Mark Coburn

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2011 12:113

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) has a key role in migraine pathophysiology and is associated with activation of the trigeminovascular system. The trigeminal ganglion, storing CGRP and its receptor compo...

    Authors: Sajedeh Eftekhari and Lars Edvinsson

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2011 12:112

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Cigarette smoking enhances the risk of stroke. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. The present study established an in vivo rat secondhand cigarette smoking (SHS) model and examined ...

    Authors: Lei Cao, Cang-Bao Xu, Yaping Zhang, Yong-Xiao Cao and Lars Edvinsson

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2011 12:109

    Content type: Research article

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  15. A number of studies have separately shown that the neuregulin1 (NRG1)/ErbB4 system and NMDA-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs) are involved in several aspects of neuronal migration. In addition, intracellular c...

    Authors: Giulia Pregno, Pollyanna Zamburlin, Giovanna Gambarotta, Silvia Farcito, Valentina Licheri, Federica Fregnan, Isabelle Perroteau, Davide Lovisolo and Patrizia Bovolin

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2011 12:103

    Content type: Research article

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  16. The response of mammalian glial cells to chronic degeneration and trauma is hypothesized to be incompatible with support of neuronal function in the central nervous system (CNS) and retina. To test this hypoth...

    Authors: Félix R Vázquez-Chona, Alex Swan, W Drew Ferrell, Li Jiang, Wolfgang Baehr, Wei-Ming Chien, Matthew Fero, Robert E Marc and Edward M Levine

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2011 12:98

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Accumulating evidence suggests that glial signalling is activated by different brain functions. However, knowledge regarding molecular mechanisms of activation or their relation to neuronal activity is limited...

    Authors: Tünde Molnár, Árpád Dobolyi, Gabriella Nyitrai, Péter Barabás, László Héja, Zsuzsa Emri, Miklós Palkovits and Julianna Kardos

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2011 12:96

    Content type: Research article

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  18. The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus regulates food intake. Ankyrin repeat and SOCS box containing protein 4 (Asb-4) is expressed in neuropeptide Y and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the arcuate nucl...

    Authors: Ji-Yao Li, Biaoxin Chai, Weizhen Zhang, Xiaobin Wu, Chao Zhang, Danielle Fritze, Zefeng Xia, Cam Patterson and Michael W Mulholland

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2011 12:95

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Tobacco smoke (TS) contains highly reactive oxygen species (such as hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrite, etc), which cause oxidative damage in vascular tissue and may exacerbate inflammatory events leading to the...

    Authors: Mohammed Hossain, Peter Mazzone, William Tierney and Luca Cucullo

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2011 12:92

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Little is known about expression and function of the somatostatinergic system in the mammalian cochlea. We have previously shown that somatostatin administration may have a protective effect on gentamicin-indu...

    Authors: Vesna Radojevic, Claudia Hanusek, Cristian Setz, Yves Brand, Josef P Kapfhammer and Daniel Bodmer

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2011 12:89

    Content type: Research article

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  21. The use of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) for the functional replacement of damaged neurons and in vitro disease modeling is of great clinical relevance. Unfortunately, the capacity of iPSC lines to diffe...

    Authors: Karl R Koehler, Philippe Tropel, Jonathan W Theile, Takako Kondo, Theodore R Cummins, Stéphane Viville and Eri Hashino

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2011 12:82

    Content type: Research article

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  22. It is now widely accepted that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a critical regulator of energy homeostasis. Recently, it has been shown to regulate circadian clocks. In seasonal breeding species such as ...

    Authors: Jean-Baptiste Menassol, Claire Tautou, Armelle Collet, Didier Chesneau, Didier Lomet, Joëlle Dupont, Benoît Malpaux and Rex J Scaramuzzi

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2011 12:76

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Head trauma is one of the most important clinical issues that not only can be fatal and disabling, requiring long-term treatment and care, but also can cause heavy financial burden. Formation or distribution o...

    Authors: Murat Kalayci, Mufit M Unal, Sanser Gul, Serefden Acikgoz, Nilufer Kandemir, Volkan Hanci, Nurullah Edebali and Bektas Acikgoz

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2011 12:75

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Apoptosis plays a critical role during neuronal development and disease. Developing sympathetic neurons depend on nerve growth factor (NGF) for survival during the late embryonic and early postnatal period and...

    Authors: Rosie Hughes, Jonathan Gilley, Mark Kristiansen and Jonathan Ham

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2011 12:69

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Neural tissue has limited potential to self-renew after neurological damage. Cell therapy using BM-MSCs (bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells) seems like a promising approach for the treatment of neurological...

    Authors: Zhuo Liu, Danqing Huang, Meijuan Zhang, Zhibin Chen, Jiali Jin, Siyuan Huang, Zhuo Zhang, Zhongyuan Wang, Lei Chen, Ling Chen and Yun Xu

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2011 12:67

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Myosin VI, encoded by jaguar (jar) in Drosophila melanogaster, is a unique member of the myosin superfamily of actin-based motor proteins. Myosin VI is the only myosin known to move towards the minus or pointed e...

    Authors: Marta Kisiel, Debolina Majumdar, Shelagh Campbell and Bryan A Stewart

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2011 12:65

    Content type: Research article

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  27. The hippocampus mediates the acquisition of spatial memory, but the memory trace is eventually transferred to the cortex. We have investigated transcriptional activation of pathways related to cognitive functi...

    Authors: Sung-Soo Park, Alexis M Stranahan, Wayne Chadwick, Yu Zhou, Liyun Wang, Bronwen Martin, Kevin G Becker and Stuart Maudsley

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2011 12:63

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Myzus persicae is a globally important aphid pest with a history of developing resistance to insecticides. Unusually, neonicotinoids have remained highly effective as control agents despite nearly two decades of ...

    Authors: Chris Bass, Alin M Puinean, Melanie Andrews, Penny Cutler, Miriam Daniels, Jan Elias, Verity Laura Paul, Andrew J Crossthwaite, Ian Denholm, Linda M Field, Stephen P Foster, Rob Lind, Martin S Williamson and Russell Slater

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2011 12:51

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Nox-2 (also known as gp91phox), a subunit component of NADPH oxidases, generates reactive oxygen species (ROS). Nox-dependent ROS generation and nitric oxide (NO) release by microglia have been implicated in a va...

    Authors: Yingqian Huo, Parakalan Rangarajan, Eng-Ang Ling and S Thameem Dheen

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2011 12:49

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Detecting functional variants contributing to diversity of behaviour is crucial for dissecting genetics of complex behaviours. At a molecular level, characterisation of variation in exons has been studied as t...

    Authors: Ursula M Paredes, Vivien J Bubb, Kate Haddley, Gabriele A Macho and John P Quinn

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2011 12:46

    Content type: Research article

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  31. One of the most important and often neglected physiological stimuli contributing to the differentiation of vascular endothelial cells (ECs) into a blood-brain barrier (BBB) phenotype is shear stress (SS). With...

    Authors: Luca Cucullo, Mohammed Hossain, Vikram Puvenna, Nicola Marchi and Damir Janigro

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2011 12:40

    Content type: Research article

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  32. The serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) is a key regulator of serotonergic neurotransmission and has been linked to various psychiatric disorders. Among the genetic variants, polymorphisms in the 5-HTT gene-linked...

    Authors: Tien-Wen Lee, Younger WY Yu, Chen-Jee Hong, Shih-Jen Tsai, Hung-Chi Wu and Tai-Jui Chen

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2011 12:33

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Deletion or mutation(s) of the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene causes spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a neuromuscular disease characterized by spinal motor neuron death and muscle paralysis. Complete loss of t...

    Authors: Chia-Yen Wu, Dosh Whye, Lisa Glazewski, Leila Choe, Douglas Kerr, Kelvin H Lee, Robert W Mason and Wenlan Wang

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2011 12:25

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is a known adjuvant for treating ischemia-related inner ear diseases. Controversies still exist in the role of HBOT in cochlear diseases. Few studies to date have investigated ...

    Authors: Chia-Der Lin, I-Hua Wei, Chih-Ho Lai, Te-Chun Hsia, Ming-Ching Kao, Ming-Hsui Tsai, Ching-Hsiang Wu and Mang-Hung Tsai

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2011 12:21

    Content type: Research article

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  35. The long-term effects of cocaine on behavior are accompanied by structural changes in excitatory glutamatergic synapses onto the medium spiny neurons of the striatum. The Kalrn gene encodes several functionally d...

    Authors: Richard E Mains, Drew D Kiraly, Jodi E Eipper-Mains, Xin-Ming Ma and Betty A Eipper

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2011 12:20

    Content type: Research article

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  36. An ever growing body of evidences is emerging concerning metabolism hormones, neurotransmitters or stress-related biomarkers as effective modulators of eating behavior and body weight in mammals. The present s...

    Authors: Gino Giannaccini, Laura Betti, Lionella Palego, Andrea Pirone, Lara Schmid, Mario Lanza, Laura Fabbrini, Caterina Pelosini, Margherita Maffei, Ferruccio Santini, Aldo Pinchera and Antonio Lucacchini

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2011 12:18

    Content type: Research article

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  37. The six-layered neocortex of the mammalian brain may appear largely homologous, but is in reality a modular structure of anatomically and functionally distinct areas. However, global gene expression seems to b...

    Authors: Christine Stansberg, Kari M Ersland, Paul van der Valk and Vidar M Steen

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2011 12:15

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Excitatory transmitting mechanisms are proving to play a critical role on neuronal homeostasis conditions of facultative hibernators such as the Syrian golden hamster. Indeed works have shown that the glutamat...

    Authors: Raffaella Alò, Ennio Avolio, Antonio Carelli, Rosa Maria Facciolo and Marcello Canonaco

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2011 12:10

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Molecular genetic studies of Bombyx mori have led to profound advances in our understanding of the regulation of development. Bombyx mori brain, as a main endocrine organ, plays important regulatory roles in vari...

    Authors: Ling Gan, Xilong Liu, Zhonghuai Xiang and Ningjia He

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2011 12:8

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Because the choroid plexus (CP) is uniquely suited to control the composition of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), there may be therapeutic benefits to increasing the levels of biologically active proteins in CSF to ...

    Authors: Ana Maria Gonzalez, Wendy E Leadbeater, Michael Burg, Karen Sims, Tetsuya Terasaki, Conrad E Johanson, Edward G Stopa, Brian P Eliceiri and Andrew Baird

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2011 12:4

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Propriospinal neurons, with axonal projections intrinsic to the spinal cord, have shown a greater regenerative response than supraspinal neurons after axotomy due to spinal cord injury (SCI). Our previous work...

    Authors: Justin R Siebert, Frank A Middleton and Dennis J Stelzner

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2010 11:148

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Anesthetics dose-dependently shift electroencephalographic (EEG) activity towards high-amplitude, slow rhythms, indicative of a synchronization of neuronal activity in thalamocortical networks. Additionally, t...

    Authors: Matthias Kreuzer, Harald Hentschke, Bernd Antkowiak, Cornelius Schwarz, Eberhard F Kochs and Gerhard Schneider

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2010 11:122

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Ciguatoxins (CTXs) are polyether marine neurotoxins and potent activators of voltage-gated sodium channels. This toxin is carried by multiple reef-fish species and human consumption of ciguatoxins can result i...

    Authors: James C Ryan, Jeanine S Morey, Marie-Yasmine Dechraoui Bottein, John S Ramsdell and Frances M Van Dolah

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2010 11:107

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Hydroxysafflor Yellow A (HSYA), which is one of the most important active ingredients of the Chinese herb Carthamus tinctorius L, is widely used in the treatment of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases. Ho...

    Authors: Le-qun Shan, Sai Ma, Xiu-chun Qiu, Yong Zhou, Yong Zhang, Lian-he Zheng, Peng-cheng Ren, Yu-cai Wang, Qing-yu Fan and Bao-an Ma

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2010 11:98

    Content type: Research article

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