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Anatomy, development, plasticity and repair

Section edited by Anthony Kline

This section covers all aspects of brain anatomy, development, plasticity and repair in both human and animal models. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to, neurodevelopment, neural activity, synapse formation, stem cells, blood flow in the brain, neurotrauma and repair, neuropharmacology, pathophysiology, and rehabilitation.

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  1. Amblyopia is generally considered a neurodevelopmental disorder that results from abnormal visual experiences in early childhood and may persist to adulthood. The neural basis of amblyopia has been a matter of...

    Authors: Minglong Liang, He Xiao, Bing Xie, Xuntao Yin, Jian Wang and Hong Yang

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2019 20:39

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Hypothalamic inflammation including astrogliosis and microglia activation occurs after intake of high fat diet (HFD) in rodent models or in obese individuals. However, the effect of chronic HFD feeding on olig...

    Authors: Hui-Ting Huang, Sheng-Feng Tsai, Hung-Tsung Wu, Hsin-Ying Huang, Han-Hsueh Hsieh, Yu-Ming Kuo, Po-See Chen, Chung-Shi Yang and Shun-Fen Tzeng

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2019 20:33

    Content type: Research article

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  3. The spinal cord is limited in its capacity to repair after damage caused by injury or disease. However, propriospinal (PS) neurons in the spinal cord have demonstrated a propensity for axonal regeneration afte...

    Authors: Kristen Swieck, Amanda Conta-Steencken, Frank A. Middleton, Justin R. Siebert, Donna J. Osterhout and Dennis J. Stelzner

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2019 20:10

    Content type: Research article

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  4. FoxP transcription factors play crucial roles for the development and function of vertebrate brains. In humans the neurally expressed FOXPs, FOXP1, FOXP2, and FOXP4 are implicated in cognition, including langu...

    Authors: Adriana Schatton, Julia Agoro, Janis Mardink, Gérard Leboulle and Constance Scharff

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2018 19:69

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Non-depolarizing magnetic fields, like low frequency-pulsed electromagnetic fields (LF-PEMFs) have shown the ability to modulate living structures, principally by influencing synaptic activity and ion channels...

    Authors: Enrico Premi, Alberto Benussi, Antonio La Gatta, Stefano Visconti, Angelo Costa, Nicola Gilberti, Valentina Cantoni, Alessandro Padovani, Barbara Borroni and Mauro Magoni

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2018 19:34

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Quantification of axon regeneration in spinal cord tissue sections is a fundamental step to adequately determine if an applied treatment leads to an anatomical benefit following spinal cord injury. Recent adva...

    Authors: Akash Patel, Zhongzhi Li, Philip Canete, Hans Strobl, Jennifer Dulin, Ken Kadoya, Dan Gibbs and Gunnar H. D. Poplawski

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2018 19:8

    Content type: Software

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  7. The hippocampus is a functionally heterogeneous brain structure and specializations of the intrinsic neuronal network may crucially support the functional segregation along the longitudinal axis of the hippoca...

    Authors: Vassilios Papaleonidopoulos, George Trompoukis, Andriana Koutsoumpa and Costas Papatheodoropoulos

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2017 18:79

    Content type: Research article

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  8. The formation of visuotopically-aligned projections in the brain is required for the generation of functional binocular circuits. The mechanisms which underlie this process are unknown. Ten-m3 is expressed in...

    Authors: Kelly A. Glendining, Sam C. Liu, Marvin Nguyen, Nuwan Dharmaratne, Rajini Nagarajah, Miguel A. Iglesias, Atomu Sawatari and Catherine A. Leamey

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2017 18:78

    Content type: Research Article

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  9. Delayed reconstruction of transection or laceration injuries of peripheral nerves is inflicted by a reduced regeneration capacity. Diabetic conditions, more frequently encountered in clinical practice, are kno...

    Authors: Lena Stenberg, Maria Stößel, Giulia Ronchi, Stefano Geuna, Yaobin Yin, Susanne Mommert, Lisa Mårtensson, Jennifer Metzen, Claudia Grothe, Lars B. Dahlin and Kirsten Haastert-Talini

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2017 18:53

    Content type: Research article

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  10. We studied whether regulation of Cdca7 (Cell division cycle associated 7) expression by transcription factor Pax6 contributes to Pax6’s cellular actions during corticogenesis. The function of Cdca7 in mediating P...

    Authors: Yu-Ting Huang, John O. Mason and David J. Price

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2017 18:47

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Ischemic stroke is a major disease that threatens human health in ageing population. Increasing evidence has shown that neuroinflammatory mediators play crucial roles in the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemi...

    Authors: Wen-Xin Zeng, Yong-Li Han, Gao-Feng Zhu, Lin-Qiang Huang, Yi-Yu Deng, Qiao-Sheng Wang, Wen-Qiang Jiang, Miao-Yun Wen, Qian-Peng Han, Di Xie and Hong-Ke Zeng

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2017 18:32

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Increased motor activity or social interactions through enriched environment are strong stimulators of grey and white matter plasticity in the adult rodent brain. In the present study we evaluated whether spe...

    Authors: Silke Keiner, Fanny Niv, Susanne Neumann, Tanja Steinbach, Christian Schmeer, Katrin Hornung, Yvonne Schlenker, Martin Förster, Otto W. Witte and Christoph Redecker

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2017 18:31

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Wallerian degeneration (WD) in injured peripheral nerves is associated with a large number of up- or down-regulated genes, but the effects of these changes are poorly understood. In our previous studies, we re...

    Authors: Xingyu Liu, Yuhua Sun, Huaiqin Li, Yuting Li, Meiyuan Li, Ying Yuan, Shusen Cui and Dengbing Yao

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2017 18:30

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) is a powerful technique for monitoring the temporal and spatial dynamics of gene expression in the mouse brain. However, the black fur, skin pigmentation and hair regrowth after d...

    Authors: Hironori Izumi, Tetsuya Ishimoto, Hiroshi Yamamoto and Hisashi Mori

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2017 18:18

    Content type: methodology article

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  15. Immunization with neural derived peptides (INDP) as well as scar removal—separately—have shown to induce morphological and functional improvement after spinal cord injury (SCI). In the present study, we compar...

    Authors: Roxana Rodríguez-Barrera, Adrián Flores-Romero, Ana María Fernández-Presas, Elisa García-Vences, Raúl Silva-García, Mina Konigsberg, Liliana Blancas-Espinoza, Vinnitsa Buzoianu-Anguiano, Karla Soria-Zavala, Paola Suárez-Meade and Antonio Ibarra

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2017 18:7

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is a pleiotropic, secreted molecule with diverse effects. The potent ability of BMP-2 to stimulate bone growth prompted its widespread clinical use for arthrodesis (spine f...

    Authors: Kendall Mitchell, Jill P. Shah, Clifton L. Dalgard, Lyubov V. Tsytsikova, Ashley C. Tipton, Anton E. Dmitriev and Aviva J. Symes

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:80

    Content type: Research Article

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  17. Cerebral oedema is closely related to the permeability of blood–brain barrier, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) all of which are...

    Authors: Linqiang Huang, Wei Cao, Yiyu Deng, Gaofeng Zhu, Yongli Han and Hongke Zeng

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:64

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Perivascular stromal cells (PSCs) are a recently identified cell type that comprises a small percentage of the platelet derived growth factor receptor-β+ cells within the CNS perivascular space. PSCs are activ...

    Authors: Kathleen K. Kelly, Amber M. MacPherson, Himmat Grewal, Frank Strnad, Jace W. Jones, Jianshi Yu, Keely Pierzchalski, Maureen A. Kane, Paco S. Herson and Julie A. Siegenthaler

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:49

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Regression of myelinated peripheral nerve fibers in the lower extremities contributes to sarcopenia and balance dysfunction in normal aging. This subclinical regression of myelinated fibers (MFs) is heavily in...

    Authors: Masahiro Sakita, Shinichiro Murakami and Hidemi Fujino

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:39

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Aristaless-related homeobox (ARX) is a paired-like homeodomain transcription factor that functions primarily as a transcriptional repressor and has been implicated in neocortical interneuron specification and mig...

    Authors: Eric D. Marsh, MacLean Pancoast Nasrallah, Caroline Walsh, Kaitlin A. Murray, C. Nicole Sunnen, Almedia McCoy and Jeffrey A. Golden

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:35

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Previously, we have shown that transgenic cells bearing the GDNF gene with deleted pre- and pro-regions (mGDNF) can release transgenic GDNF. The medium conditioned by transgenic cells with mGDNF induced axonal...

    Authors: A. Revishchin, L. Moiseenko, N. Kust, N. Bazhenova, P. Teslia, D. Panteleev, V. Kovalzon and G. Pavlova

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:34

    Content type: Research article

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  22. A major area of unmet need is the development of strategies to restore neuronal network systems and to recover brain function in patients with neurological disease. The use of cell-based therapies remains an a...

    Authors: Jaime Belkind-Gerson, Ryo Hotta, Michael Whalen, Naema Nayyar, Nandor Nagy, Lily Cheng, Aaron Zuckerman, Allan M. Goldstein and Jorg Dietrich

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:5

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Nerve growth factor (NGF) is known not only as a major factor for neuronal plasticity but also as a pain stimulator. Although there have been several trials with NGF for its application in the regeneration or ...

    Authors: Joo-Yeon Kang, Dae Young Yoo, Kwon-Young Lee, Wooseok Im, Manho Kim, Jung Hoon Choi, Hwa-Young Youn, Sae Hoon Kim, In Koo Hwang and Jin-Young Chung

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:1

    Content type: Research article

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  24. WDR81 (WD repeat-containing protein 81) is associated with cerebellar ataxia, mental retardation and disequilibrium syndrome (CAMRQ2, [MIM 610185]). Human and mouse studies suggest tha...

    Authors: Fusun Doldur-Balli, Mehmet Neset Ozel, Suleyman Gulsuner, Ayse B. Tekinay, Tayfun Ozcelik, Ozlen Konu and Michelle M. Adams

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2015 16:96

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Scutellarin, an anti-inflammatory agent, effectively suppressed microglia activation in rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Robust microglia activation, acute in onset, was followed by astroglio...

    Authors: Ming Fang, Yun Yuan, Parakalan Rangarajan, Jia Lu, Yajun Wu, Huadong Wang, Chunyun Wu and Eng-Ang Ling

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2015 16:84

    Content type: Research article

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  26. It is well documented that the nitric oxide (NO) might be directly involved in brain response to hypobaric hypoxia, and could contribute to memory deficiencies. Recent studies have shown that melatonin could a...

    Authors: Chih-Chia Huang, Chia-Jou Lai, Mang-Hung Tsai, Ya-Chieh Wu, Kuang-Ti Chen, Ming-Jia Jou, Pin-I Fu, Ching-Hsiang Wu and I-Hua Wei

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2015 16:61

    Content type: Research Article

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  27. The transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) has proved to ameliorate ischemic brain injury in animals, but most transplanted MSCs undergo apoptosis in the ischemic penumbra, greatly compromising th...

    Authors: Yi-Xian Zhang, Ming-Zhou Yuan, Lin Cheng, Long-Zai Lin, Hou-Wei Du, Rong-Hua Chen and Nan Liu

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2015 16:56

    Content type: Research article

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  28. While the tripartite brain of arthropods is believed to have evolved by a fusion of initially separate ganglia, the evolutionary origin of the bipartite brain of onychophorans—one of the closest arthropod rela...

    Authors: Christine Martin and Georg Mayer

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2015 16:53

    Content type: Research article

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  29. GABAA receptor-mediated neurotransmission is greatly influenced by cation-chloride cotransporter activity during developmental stages. In embryonic neurons Na–K–2Cl (NKCC1) cotransporters mediate active chloride ...

    Authors: Joelle N Chabwine, Karel Talavera, Ludo Van Den Bosch and Geert Callewaert

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2015 16:41

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Axons from the visceral motor neurons (vMNs) project from nuclei in the hindbrain to innervate autonomic ganglia and branchial arch-derived muscles. Although much is known about the events that govern specific...

    Authors: Jessica M Rosin, Deborah M Kurrasch and John Cobb

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2015 16:39

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) disease is an inherited lysosomal storage disease caused by mutation of the Npc1 gene, resulting in a progressive accumulation of unesterified cholesterol and glycolipids in lysosomes ...

    Authors: Xin Yan, Lucy Ma, Marina Hovakimyan, Jan Lukas, Andreas Wree, Marcus Frank, Rudolf Guthoff, Arndt Rolfs, Martin Witt and Jiankai Luo

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2014 15:126

    Content type: Research article

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  32. In response to cerebral ischemia, activated microglia release excessive inflammatory mediators which contribute to neuronal damage. Therefore, inhibition of microglial over-activation could be a therapeutic st...

    Authors: Yun Yuan, Hao Zha, Parakalan Rangarajan, Eng-Ang Ling and Chunyun Wu

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2014 15:125

    Content type: Research article

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  33. There has been increasing interest recently in the plasticity of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their potential to differentiate into neural lineages. To unravel the roles and effects of different growth fa...

    Authors: Tee Jong Huat, Amir Ali Khan, Soumya Pati, Zulkifli Mustafa, Jafri Malin Abdullah and Hasnan Jaafar

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2014 15:91

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Understanding the underlying causes of nicotine addiction will require a multidisciplinary approach examining the key molecular, cellular and neuronal circuit functional changes that drive escalating levels of...

    Authors: Anthony Renda and Raad Nashmi

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2014 15:89

    Content type: Research article

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  35. The boundary cap is a transient group of neural crest-derived cells located at the presumptive dorsal root transitional zone (DRTZ) when sensory axons enter the spinal cord during development. Later, these cel...

    Authors: Carl Trolle, Niclas Konig, Ninnie Abrahamsson, Svitlana Vasylovska and Elena N Kozlova

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2014 15:60

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Myelination is a very complex process that requires the cross talk between various neural cell types. Previously, using cytosolic or membrane associated GFP tagged neurospheres, we followed the interaction of ...

    Authors: Kalliopi Ioannidou, Kurt I Anderson, David Strachan, Julia M Edgar and Susan C Barnett

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2014 15:59

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Norbin is a neuron-specific, cytosolic protein that interacts with the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) and has a profound impact on mGluR5 signaling. Yet, little is known about its synaptic distribu...

    Authors: Linda Westin, Matthias Reuss, Maria Lindskog, Anita Aperia and Hjalmar Brismar

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2014 15:45

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Epidermal growth factor receptor substrate 8 (Eps8) is a multifunctional protein that regulates actin cytoskeleton dynamics and architecture through its barbed-end capping and bundling activities. In cultured ...

    Authors: Chiung-Chun Huang, Yun-Shen Lin, Cheng-Che Lee and Kuei-Sen Hsu

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2014 15:26

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) was recently described for mapping of human language areas. However, its capability of detecting language plasticity in brain tumor patients was no...

    Authors: Sandro M Krieg, Nico Sollmann, Theresa Hauck, Sebastian Ille, Bernhard Meyer and Florian Ringel

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2014 15:20

    Content type: Methodology article

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  40. Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a reversible neuropsychiatric syndrome associated with acute and chronic liver diseases. It includes a number of neuropsychiatric disturbances including impaired motor activity a...

    Authors: Jeng-Rung Chen, Bing-Ning Wang, Guo-Fang Tseng, Yueh-Jan Wang, Yong-San Huang and Tsyr-Jiuan Wang

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2014 15:15

    Content type: Research article

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  41. The neurotrophin Nerve Growth factor (NGF) is known to influence the phenotype of mature nociceptors, for example by altering synthesis of neuropeptides, and changes in NGF levels have been implicated in the p...

    Authors: Laura J Evans, Alison R Loescher, Fiona M Boissonade, Simon A Whawell, Peter P Robinson and David Andrew

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2014 15:1

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells (OEC) and Schwann cells (SC) is a promising therapeutic strategy to promote axonal growth and remyelination after spinal cord injury. Previous studies mainly focu...

    Authors: Frank Roloff, Susanne Ziege, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Konstantin Wewetzer and Gerd Bicker

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2013 14:141

    Content type: Research article

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  1. We aimed to study the role of amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor (AMPAR) glutamate receptor 2 (GluR2) subunit trafficking, and activity changes in short-term neuroprotection provided b...

    Authors: Chenxu Wang, Ying Wei, Yuan Yuan, Yonghao Yu, Keliang Xie, Beibei Dong, Yuan Shi and Guolin Wang

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2019 20:51

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation are central pathogenic mechanisms common to many neurological diseases. Isoliquiritigenin (ISL) is a flavonoid in licorice with multiple pharmacological properties, inclu...

    Authors: Xiaobo Zhu, Jiankun Liu, Shaojie Chen, Jiang Xue, Shanying Huang, Yibiao Wang and Ou Chen

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2019 20:41

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive neural control technology that has become a research hotspot. To facilitate further research of tDCS, the biosafety of 500 μA cathodal tDCS, a co...

    Authors: Keying Zhang, Ling Guo, Junping Zhang, Guangzhou An, Yan Zhou, Jiajin Lin, Junling Xing, Mai Lu and Guirong Ding

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2019 20:40

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Recently, the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has become more generally accepted, including by the Food and Drug Administration. To expand the use of TCM worldwide, it is important to study the molec...

    Authors: Jinyuan Yan, Zhongshan Yang, Ninghui Zhao, Zhiwei Li and Xia Cao

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2019 20:31

    Content type: Research article

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  5. The electroencephalogram (EEG) is a widely used laboratory technique in rodent models of epilepsy, traumatic brain injury (TBI), and other neurological diseases accompanied by seizures. Obtaining prolonged con...

    Authors: Yasser Medlej, Rita Asdikian, Lara Wadi, Houssein Salah, Laura Dosh, Rabih Hashash, Nabil Karnib, Mohammad Medlej, Hala Darwish, Firas Kobeissy and Makram Obeid

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2019 20:8

    Content type: Methodology article

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  6. Our published data have indicated that the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) provides beneficial effects by attenuating neuronal damage induced by interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and up-re...

    Authors: YiLong Dong, KangJing Pu, WenJing Duan, HuiCheng Chen, LiXing Chen and YanMei Wang

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2018 19:52

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Impaired reaction time in patients suffering from hypoxia during sleep, caused by sleep breathing disorders, is a well-described phenomenon. High altitude sleep is known to induce periodic breathing with centr...

    Authors: Stephan Pramsohler, Stefan Wimmer, Martin Kopp, Hannes Gatterer, Martin Faulhaber, Martin Burtscher and Nikolaus Cristoph Netzer

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2017 18:43

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) analogs protect a variety of cell types against oxidative damage and vascular and neuronal injury via binding to GLP-1 receptors. This study aimed to investigate the effects of ...

    Authors: Ping-Chia Li, Li-Fen Liu, Ming-Jia Jou and Hao-Kuang Wang

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:37

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) often suffer from cognitive impairments, including set-shifting deficits, in addition to the characteristic motor symptoms. It is hypothesized that the striatal dopamine ...

    Authors: Corine C. de Bondt, Niels J. H. M. Gerrits, Dick J. Veltman, Henk W. Berendse, Odile A. van den Heuvel and Ysbrand D. van der Werf

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:20

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Prenatal maternal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure leads to behavioral deficits such as depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia in the adult lives. LPS-exposure resulted in the production of cytokines and oxid...

    Authors: Md. Mamun Al-Amin, Rabeya Sultana, Sharmin Sultana, Md. Mahbubur Rahman and Hasan Mahmud Reza

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:11

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Synaptic dysfunction is a key event in pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) where synapse loss pathologically correlates with cognitive decline and dementia. Although evi...

    Authors: Jia Luo, Sue H. Lee, Lawren VandeVrede, Zhihui Qin, Sujeewa Piyankarage, Ehsan Tavassoli, Rezene T. Asghodom, Manel Ben Aissa, Mauro Fà, Ottavio Arancio, Lan Yue, David R. Pepperberg and Gregory R. J. Thatcher

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2015 16:67

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Adaptive decision making requires the adjustment of behaviour following an error. Some theories suggest that repetitive thoughts and behaviours in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are driven by malfunctioni...

    Authors: Mandana Modirrousta, Benjamin P. Meek, Jitender Sareen and Murray W. Enns

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2015 16:63

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Latrunculin A microperfusion of the hippocampus induces acute epileptic seizures and long-term biochemical changes leading to spontaneous seizures. This study tested the effect of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL)...

    Authors: Germán Sierra-Paredes, Ana I Loureiro, Lyndon C Wright, Germán Sierra-Marcuño and Patrício Soares-da-Silva

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2014 15:134

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Progesterone is neuroprotective in numerous preclinical CNS injury models including cerebral ischaemia. The aim of this study was two-fold; firstly, we aimed to determine whether progesterone delivery via osmo...

    Authors: Raymond Wong, Claire L Gibson, David A Kendall and Philip MW Bath

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2014 15:131

    Content type: Research article

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  15. The GABAergic system plays an important role in modulating levels of anxiety. When transplanted into the brain, precursor cells from the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) have the ability to differentiate into ...

    Authors: Simone Amaro Alves Romariz, Daisyléa de Souza Paiva, Maria Fernanda Valente, Gabriela Filoso Barnabé, Roberto Frussa-Filho, Regina Cláudia Barbosa-Silva, Maria Elisa Calcagnotto and Beatriz Monteiro Longo

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2014 15:94

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Motor cortex excitability was found to be changed after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the temporal cortex highlighting the occurrence of cross-modal plasticity in non-invasive brain st...

    Authors: Martin Schecklmann, Michael Landgrebe, Tobias Kleinjung, Elmar Frank, Philipp G Sand, Rainer Rupprecht, Peter Eichhammer, Göran Hajak and Berthold Langguth

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2014 15:71

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Because neuroprotective effects of estrogen remain controversial, we aimed to investigate the effect of different doses of estradiol (E2) on cerebral ischemia using both in vivo and in vitro experiments.

    Authors: Yu-Long Ma, Pei Qin, Yan Li, Lan Shen, Shi-Quan Wang, Hai-Long Dong, Wu-Gang Hou and Li-Ze Xiong

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2013 14:118

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Some neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer and Parkinson, present an olfactory impairment in early stages, and sometimes even before the clinical symptoms begin. In this study, we assess the role of CA...

    Authors: Carlos Bernal-Mondragón, Selva Rivas-Arancibia, Keith M Kendrick and Rosalinda Guevara-Guzmán

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2013 14:104

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Previous studies associate lipid peroxidation with long-term memory (LTM) failure in a gastropod model (Lymnaea stagnalis) of associative learning and memory. This process involves activation of Phospholipase A2 ...

    Authors: Petra M Hermann, Deborah Park, Emily Beaulieu and Willem C Wildering

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2013 14:83

    Content type: Research article

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  20. To measure the impact of masticatory reduction on learning and memory, previous studies have produced experimental masticatory reduction by modified diet or molar removal. Here we induced spatial learning impa...

    Authors: Fabíola de Carvalho Chaves de Siqueira Mendes, Marina Negrão Frota de Almeida, André Pinheiro Gurgel Felício, Ana Carla Fadel, Diego de Jesus Silva, Thaíssa Gomes Borralho, Rodrigo Perez da Silva, João Bento-Torres, Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos, Victor Hugh Perry, Edson Marcos Leal Soares Ramos, Cristovam Wanderley Picanço-Diniz and Marcia Consentino Kronka Sosthenes

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2013 14:63

    Content type: Research article

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  21. While cortical representations of intrinsic hand muscles have been extensively studied in healthy individuals, little is known about the representation of proximal upper limb muscles. Improving our understandi...

    Authors: Suzy Ngomo, Catherine Mercier and Jean-Sébastien Roy

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2013 14:52

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is elevated early in injured brain after traumatic brain injury (TBI), in humans and in animals. Etanercept (a TNF-α antagonist with anti-inflammatory effects) attenuates TB...

    Authors: Chung-Ching Chio, Chin-Hong Chang, Che-Chuan Wang, Chong-Un Cheong, Chien-Ming Chao, Bor-Chih Cheng, Chung-Zhing Yang and Ching-Ping Chang

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2013 14:33

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Acupuncture has been applied to aid in the recovery of post-stroke patients, but its mechanism is unclear. This study aims to analyze the relationship between acupuncture and glucose metabolism in cerebral fun...

    Authors: Yong Huang, Chunzhi Tang, Shuxia Wang, Yangjia Lu, Wei Shen, Junjun Yang, Junqi Chen, Renyong Lin, Shaoyang Cui, Huiling Xiao, Shanshan Qu, Xinsheng Lai and Baoci Shan

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2012 13:75

    Content type: Research article

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