Skip to main content


Anatomy, development, plasticity and repair

Section edited by Charanjit Kaur

This section is dedicated to covering brain anatomy, development, plasticity and repair. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to, neurodevelopment, neural activity, synapse formation, stem cells, blood flow in the brain and neurobehavioural genetics.

Page 1 of 2

  1. Content type: Research article

    Amblyopia is generally considered a neurodevelopmental disorder that results from abnormal visual experiences in early childhood and may persist to adulthood. The neural basis of amblyopia has been a matter of...

    Authors: Minglong Liang, He Xiao, Bing Xie, Xuntao Yin, Jian Wang and Hong Yang

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2019 20:39

    Published on:

  2. Content type: Research article

    Hypothalamic inflammation including astrogliosis and microglia activation occurs after intake of high fat diet (HFD) in rodent models or in obese individuals. However, the effect of chronic HFD feeding on olig...

    Authors: Hui-Ting Huang, Sheng-Feng Tsai, Hung-Tsung Wu, Hsin-Ying Huang, Han-Hsueh Hsieh, Yu-Ming Kuo, Po-See Chen, Chung-Shi Yang and Shun-Fen Tzeng

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2019 20:33

    Published on:

  3. Content type: Research article

    The spinal cord is limited in its capacity to repair after damage caused by injury or disease. However, propriospinal (PS) neurons in the spinal cord have demonstrated a propensity for axonal regeneration afte...

    Authors: Kristen Swieck, Amanda Conta-Steencken, Frank A. Middleton, Justin R. Siebert, Donna J. Osterhout and Dennis J. Stelzner

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2019 20:10

    Published on:

  4. Content type: Research article

    FoxP transcription factors play crucial roles for the development and function of vertebrate brains. In humans the neurally expressed FOXPs, FOXP1, FOXP2, and FOXP4 are implicated in cognition, including langu...

    Authors: Adriana Schatton, Julia Agoro, Janis Mardink, Gérard Leboulle and Constance Scharff

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2018 19:69

    Published on:

  5. Content type: Research article

    Non-depolarizing magnetic fields, like low frequency-pulsed electromagnetic fields (LF-PEMFs) have shown the ability to modulate living structures, principally by influencing synaptic activity and ion channels...

    Authors: Enrico Premi, Alberto Benussi, Antonio La Gatta, Stefano Visconti, Angelo Costa, Nicola Gilberti, Valentina Cantoni, Alessandro Padovani, Barbara Borroni and Mauro Magoni

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2018 19:34

    Published on:

  6. Content type: Software

    Quantification of axon regeneration in spinal cord tissue sections is a fundamental step to adequately determine if an applied treatment leads to an anatomical benefit following spinal cord injury. Recent adva...

    Authors: Akash Patel, Zhongzhi Li, Philip Canete, Hans Strobl, Jennifer Dulin, Ken Kadoya, Dan Gibbs and Gunnar H. D. Poplawski

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2018 19:8

    Published on:

  7. Content type: Research article

    The hippocampus is a functionally heterogeneous brain structure and specializations of the intrinsic neuronal network may crucially support the functional segregation along the longitudinal axis of the hippoca...

    Authors: Vassilios Papaleonidopoulos, George Trompoukis, Andriana Koutsoumpa and Costas Papatheodoropoulos

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2017 18:79

    Published on:

  8. Content type: Research Article

    The formation of visuotopically-aligned projections in the brain is required for the generation of functional binocular circuits. The mechanisms which underlie this process are unknown. Ten-m3 is expressed in...

    Authors: Kelly A. Glendining, Sam C. Liu, Marvin Nguyen, Nuwan Dharmaratne, Rajini Nagarajah, Miguel A. Iglesias, Atomu Sawatari and Catherine A. Leamey

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2017 18:78

    Published on:

  9. Content type: Research article

    Delayed reconstruction of transection or laceration injuries of peripheral nerves is inflicted by a reduced regeneration capacity. Diabetic conditions, more frequently encountered in clinical practice, are kno...

    Authors: Lena Stenberg, Maria Stößel, Giulia Ronchi, Stefano Geuna, Yaobin Yin, Susanne Mommert, Lisa Mårtensson, Jennifer Metzen, Claudia Grothe, Lars B. Dahlin and Kirsten Haastert-Talini

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2017 18:53

    Published on:

  10. Content type: Research article

    We studied whether regulation of Cdca7 (Cell division cycle associated 7) expression by transcription factor Pax6 contributes to Pax6’s cellular actions during corticogenesis. The function of Cdca7 in mediating P...

    Authors: Yu-Ting Huang, John O. Mason and David J. Price

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2017 18:47

    Published on:

  11. Content type: Research article

    Ischemic stroke is a major disease that threatens human health in ageing population. Increasing evidence has shown that neuroinflammatory mediators play crucial roles in the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemi...

    Authors: Wen-Xin Zeng, Yong-Li Han, Gao-Feng Zhu, Lin-Qiang Huang, Yi-Yu Deng, Qiao-Sheng Wang, Wen-Qiang Jiang, Miao-Yun Wen, Qian-Peng Han, Di Xie and Hong-Ke Zeng

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2017 18:32

    Published on:

  12. Content type: Research article

    Increased motor activity or social interactions through enriched environment are strong stimulators of grey and white matter plasticity in the adult rodent brain. In the present study we evaluated whether spe...

    Authors: Silke Keiner, Fanny Niv, Susanne Neumann, Tanja Steinbach, Christian Schmeer, Katrin Hornung, Yvonne Schlenker, Martin Förster, Otto W. Witte and Christoph Redecker

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2017 18:31

    Published on:

  13. Content type: Research article

    Wallerian degeneration (WD) in injured peripheral nerves is associated with a large number of up- or down-regulated genes, but the effects of these changes are poorly understood. In our previous studies, we re...

    Authors: Xingyu Liu, Yuhua Sun, Huaiqin Li, Yuting Li, Meiyuan Li, Ying Yuan, Shusen Cui and Dengbing Yao

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2017 18:30

    Published on:

  14. Content type: methodology article

    Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) is a powerful technique for monitoring the temporal and spatial dynamics of gene expression in the mouse brain. However, the black fur, skin pigmentation and hair regrowth after d...

    Authors: Hironori Izumi, Tetsuya Ishimoto, Hiroshi Yamamoto and Hisashi Mori

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2017 18:18

    Published on:

  15. Content type: Research article

    Immunization with neural derived peptides (INDP) as well as scar removal—separately—have shown to induce morphological and functional improvement after spinal cord injury (SCI). In the present study, we compar...

    Authors: Roxana Rodríguez-Barrera, Adrián Flores-Romero, Ana María Fernández-Presas, Elisa García-Vences, Raúl Silva-García, Mina Konigsberg, Liliana Blancas-Espinoza, Vinnitsa Buzoianu-Anguiano, Karla Soria-Zavala, Paola Suárez-Meade and Antonio Ibarra

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2017 18:7

    Published on:

  16. Content type: Research Article

    Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is a pleiotropic, secreted molecule with diverse effects. The potent ability of BMP-2 to stimulate bone growth prompted its widespread clinical use for arthrodesis (spine f...

    Authors: Kendall Mitchell, Jill P. Shah, Clifton L. Dalgard, Lyubov V. Tsytsikova, Ashley C. Tipton, Anton E. Dmitriev and Aviva J. Symes

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:80

    Published on:

  17. Content type: Research article

    Cerebral oedema is closely related to the permeability of blood–brain barrier, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) all of which are...

    Authors: Linqiang Huang, Wei Cao, Yiyu Deng, Gaofeng Zhu, Yongli Han and Hongke Zeng

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:64

    Published on:

  18. Content type: Research article

    Perivascular stromal cells (PSCs) are a recently identified cell type that comprises a small percentage of the platelet derived growth factor receptor-β+ cells within the CNS perivascular space. PSCs are activ...

    Authors: Kathleen K. Kelly, Amber M. MacPherson, Himmat Grewal, Frank Strnad, Jace W. Jones, Jianshi Yu, Keely Pierzchalski, Maureen A. Kane, Paco S. Herson and Julie A. Siegenthaler

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:49

    Published on:

  19. Content type: Research article

    Regression of myelinated peripheral nerve fibers in the lower extremities contributes to sarcopenia and balance dysfunction in normal aging. This subclinical regression of myelinated fibers (MFs) is heavily in...

    Authors: Masahiro Sakita, Shinichiro Murakami and Hidemi Fujino

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:39

    Published on:

  20. Content type: Research article

    Aristaless-related homeobox (ARX) is a paired-like homeodomain transcription factor that functions primarily as a transcriptional repressor and has been implicated in neocortical interneuron specification and mig...

    Authors: Eric D. Marsh, MacLean Pancoast Nasrallah, Caroline Walsh, Kaitlin A. Murray, C. Nicole Sunnen, Almedia McCoy and Jeffrey A. Golden

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:35

    Published on:

  21. Content type: Research article

    Previously, we have shown that transgenic cells bearing the GDNF gene with deleted pre- and pro-regions (mGDNF) can release transgenic GDNF. The medium conditioned by transgenic cells with mGDNF induced axonal...

    Authors: A. Revishchin, L. Moiseenko, N. Kust, N. Bazhenova, P. Teslia, D. Panteleev, V. Kovalzon and G. Pavlova

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:34

    Published on:

  22. Content type: Research article

    A major area of unmet need is the development of strategies to restore neuronal network systems and to recover brain function in patients with neurological disease. The use of cell-based therapies remains an a...

    Authors: Jaime Belkind-Gerson, Ryo Hotta, Michael Whalen, Naema Nayyar, Nandor Nagy, Lily Cheng, Aaron Zuckerman, Allan M. Goldstein and Jorg Dietrich

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:5

    Published on:

  23. Content type: Research article

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is known not only as a major factor for neuronal plasticity but also as a pain stimulator. Although there have been several trials with NGF for its application in the regeneration or ...

    Authors: Joo-Yeon Kang, Dae Young Yoo, Kwon-Young Lee, Wooseok Im, Manho Kim, Jung Hoon Choi, Hwa-Young Youn, Sae Hoon Kim, In Koo Hwang and Jin-Young Chung

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2016 17:1

    Published on:

  24. Content type: Research article

    WDR81 (WD repeat-containing protein 81) is associated with cerebellar ataxia, mental retardation and disequilibrium syndrome (CAMRQ2, [MIM 610185]). Human and mouse studies suggest tha...

    Authors: Fusun Doldur-Balli, Mehmet Neset Ozel, Suleyman Gulsuner, Ayse B. Tekinay, Tayfun Ozcelik, Ozlen Konu and Michelle M. Adams

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2015 16:96

    Published on:

  25. Content type: Research article

    Scutellarin, an anti-inflammatory agent, effectively suppressed microglia activation in rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Robust microglia activation, acute in onset, was followed by astroglio...

    Authors: Ming Fang, Yun Yuan, Parakalan Rangarajan, Jia Lu, Yajun Wu, Huadong Wang, Chunyun Wu and Eng-Ang Ling

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2015 16:84

    Published on:

  26. Content type: Research Article

    It is well documented that the nitric oxide (NO) might be directly involved in brain response to hypobaric hypoxia, and could contribute to memory deficiencies. Recent studies have shown that melatonin could a...

    Authors: Chih-Chia Huang, Chia-Jou Lai, Mang-Hung Tsai, Ya-Chieh Wu, Kuang-Ti Chen, Ming-Jia Jou, Pin-I Fu, Ching-Hsiang Wu and I-Hua Wei

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2015 16:61

    Published on:

  27. Content type: Research article

    The transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) has proved to ameliorate ischemic brain injury in animals, but most transplanted MSCs undergo apoptosis in the ischemic penumbra, greatly compromising th...

    Authors: Yi-Xian Zhang, Ming-Zhou Yuan, Lin Cheng, Long-Zai Lin, Hou-Wei Du, Rong-Hua Chen and Nan Liu

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2015 16:56

    Published on:

  28. Content type: Research article

    While the tripartite brain of arthropods is believed to have evolved by a fusion of initially separate ganglia, the evolutionary origin of the bipartite brain of onychophorans—one of the closest arthropod rela...

    Authors: Christine Martin and Georg Mayer

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2015 16:53

    Published on:

  29. Content type: Research article

    GABAA receptor-mediated neurotransmission is greatly influenced by cation-chloride cotransporter activity during developmental stages. In embryonic neurons Na–K–2Cl (NKCC1) cotransporters mediate active chloride ...

    Authors: Joelle N Chabwine, Karel Talavera, Ludo Van Den Bosch and Geert Callewaert

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2015 16:41

    Published on:

  30. Content type: Research article

    Axons from the visceral motor neurons (vMNs) project from nuclei in the hindbrain to innervate autonomic ganglia and branchial arch-derived muscles. Although much is known about the events that govern specific...

    Authors: Jessica M Rosin, Deborah M Kurrasch and John Cobb

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2015 16:39

    Published on:

  31. Content type: Research article

    Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) disease is an inherited lysosomal storage disease caused by mutation of the Npc1 gene, resulting in a progressive accumulation of unesterified cholesterol and glycolipids in lysosomes ...

    Authors: Xin Yan, Lucy Ma, Marina Hovakimyan, Jan Lukas, Andreas Wree, Marcus Frank, Rudolf Guthoff, Arndt Rolfs, Martin Witt and Jiankai Luo

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2014 15:126

    Published on:

  32. Content type: Research article

    In response to cerebral ischemia, activated microglia release excessive inflammatory mediators which contribute to neuronal damage. Therefore, inhibition of microglial over-activation could be a therapeutic st...

    Authors: Yun Yuan, Hao Zha, Parakalan Rangarajan, Eng-Ang Ling and Chunyun Wu

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2014 15:125

    Published on:

  33. Content type: Research article

    There has been increasing interest recently in the plasticity of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their potential to differentiate into neural lineages. To unravel the roles and effects of different growth fa...

    Authors: Tee Jong Huat, Amir Ali Khan, Soumya Pati, Zulkifli Mustafa, Jafri Malin Abdullah and Hasnan Jaafar

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2014 15:91

    Published on:

  34. Content type: Research article

    Understanding the underlying causes of nicotine addiction will require a multidisciplinary approach examining the key molecular, cellular and neuronal circuit functional changes that drive escalating levels of...

    Authors: Anthony Renda and Raad Nashmi

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2014 15:89

    Published on:

  35. Content type: Research article

    The boundary cap is a transient group of neural crest-derived cells located at the presumptive dorsal root transitional zone (DRTZ) when sensory axons enter the spinal cord during development. Later, these cel...

    Authors: Carl Trolle, Niclas Konig, Ninnie Abrahamsson, Svitlana Vasylovska and Elena N Kozlova

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2014 15:60

    Published on:

  36. Content type: Research article

    Myelination is a very complex process that requires the cross talk between various neural cell types. Previously, using cytosolic or membrane associated GFP tagged neurospheres, we followed the interaction of ...

    Authors: Kalliopi Ioannidou, Kurt I Anderson, David Strachan, Julia M Edgar and Susan C Barnett

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2014 15:59

    Published on:

  37. Content type: Research article

    Norbin is a neuron-specific, cytosolic protein that interacts with the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) and has a profound impact on mGluR5 signaling. Yet, little is known about its synaptic distribu...

    Authors: Linda Westin, Matthias Reuss, Maria Lindskog, Anita Aperia and Hjalmar Brismar

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2014 15:45

    Published on:

  38. Content type: Research article

    Epidermal growth factor receptor substrate 8 (Eps8) is a multifunctional protein that regulates actin cytoskeleton dynamics and architecture through its barbed-end capping and bundling activities. In cultured ...

    Authors: Chiung-Chun Huang, Yun-Shen Lin, Cheng-Che Lee and Kuei-Sen Hsu

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2014 15:26

    Published on:

  39. Content type: Methodology article

    Repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) was recently described for mapping of human language areas. However, its capability of detecting language plasticity in brain tumor patients was no...

    Authors: Sandro M Krieg, Nico Sollmann, Theresa Hauck, Sebastian Ille, Bernhard Meyer and Florian Ringel

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2014 15:20

    Published on:

  40. Content type: Research article

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a reversible neuropsychiatric syndrome associated with acute and chronic liver diseases. It includes a number of neuropsychiatric disturbances including impaired motor activity a...

    Authors: Jeng-Rung Chen, Bing-Ning Wang, Guo-Fang Tseng, Yueh-Jan Wang, Yong-San Huang and Tsyr-Jiuan Wang

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2014 15:15

    Published on:

  41. Content type: Research article

    The neurotrophin Nerve Growth factor (NGF) is known to influence the phenotype of mature nociceptors, for example by altering synthesis of neuropeptides, and changes in NGF levels have been implicated in the p...

    Authors: Laura J Evans, Alison R Loescher, Fiona M Boissonade, Simon A Whawell, Peter P Robinson and David Andrew

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2014 15:1

    Published on:

  42. Content type: Research article

    Transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells (OEC) and Schwann cells (SC) is a promising therapeutic strategy to promote axonal growth and remyelination after spinal cord injury. Previous studies mainly focu...

    Authors: Frank Roloff, Susanne Ziege, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Konstantin Wewetzer and Gerd Bicker

    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2013 14:141

    Published on: