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Table 3 Multivariable-adjusted ORs (and 95% CIs) for depression, anxiety and stress across quartiles of GI and GL

From: Higher dietary glycemic load is inversely associated with stress prevalence among Iranian adults

GI quartile GL quartiles
Variables Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 P-trend Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 P-trend
Depression [n (%)]
 Crude 1.00 0.94 (0.74–1.20) 0.86 (0.67–1.10) 1.08 (0.85–1.36) 0.672 1.00 0.96 (0.75–1.22) 0.78 (0.61–1.01) 1.10 (0.87–1.39) 0.717
 Adjusted model1a 1.00 0.96 (0.75–1.22) 0.87 (0.68–1.12) 1.16 (0.90–1.48) 0.403 1.00 1.01 (0.79–1.29) 0.86 (0.64–1.15) 0.97 (0.63–1.50) 0.546
 Adjusted model2b 1.00 0.096 (0.74–1.24) 0.84 (0.64–1.10) 1.11 (0.85–1.46) 0.679 1.00 1.00 (0.77–1.30) 0.86 (0.63–1.18) 0.97 (0.61–1.56) 0.579
 Adjusted model3c 1.00 0.096 (0.74–1.24) 0.84 (0.64–1.10) 1.12 (0.85–1.46) 0.653 1.00 1.00 (0.77–1.30) 0.86 (0.63–1.18) 0.97 (0.61–1.55) 0.604
Anxiety [n (%)]
 Crude 1.00 0.99 (0.80–1.22) 0.90 (0.72–1.12) 1.16 (0.94–1.43) 0.248 1.00 0.95 (0.77–1.17) 0.89 (0.72–1.10) 0.90 (0.73–1.12) 0.292
 Adjusted model1a 1.00 1.00 (0.80–1.24) 0.91 (0.73–1.13) 1.22 (0.98–1.52) 0.157 1.00 0.96 (0.77–1.20) 0.90 (0.70–1.17) 0.94 (0.64–1.38) 0.568
 Adjusted model2b 1.00 0.99 (0.78–1.25) 0.89 (0.70–1.13) 1.17 (0.92–1.49) 0.343 1.00 0.94 (0.74–1.20) 0.90 (0.68–1.19) 0.91 (0.60–1.38) 0.542
 Adjusted model3c 1.00 0.99 (0.78–1.25) 0.89 (0.70–1.13) 0.94 (0.87–1.02) 0.323 1.00 0.94 (0.74–1.20) 0.90 (0.68–1.18) 0.91 (0.60–1.38) 0.573
Stress [n (%)]
 Crude 1.00 1.11 (0.77–1.60) 0.92 (0.63–1.35) 1.06 (0.73–1.53) 0.990 1.00 1.02 (0.72–1.44) 0.77 (0.54–1.11) 0.69 (0.47–1.00) 0.023
 Adjusted model1a 1.00 1.13 (0.79–1.63) 0.93 (0.63–1.36) 1.12 (0.76–1.65) 0.839 1.00 0.97 (0.67–1.38) 0.64 (0.41–1.00) 0.45 (0.22–0.90) 0.023
 Adjusted model2b 1.00 1.02 (0.69–1.51) 0.87 (0.57–1.31) 1.09 (0.072–1.65) 0.881 1.00 1.07 (0.68–1.50) 0.65 (0.40–1.05) 0.46 (0.22–0.96) 0.039
 Adjusted model3c 1.00 1.02 (0.69–1.51) 0.87 (0.57–1.31) 1.10 (0.72–1.66) 0.888 1.00 0.98 (0.68–1.42) 0.72 (0.40–1.05) 0.46 (0.22–0.96) 0.042
  1. GI glycemic index, GL glycemic load
  2. These values are odds ratios (95% CIs)
  3. Obtained from logistic regression by considering quartiles of GI & GL as ordinal variable
  4. aAdjusted for age, gender and total energy intake
  5. bAdditionally adjusted for physical activity, marital status, smoking, education, job status, multi-vitamins use, diabetes, hypertension
  6. cFurther adjustment BMI