Skip to main content

Table 2 Dietary intake of study participants among the quartiles of GI & GL

From: Higher dietary glycemic load is inversely associated with stress prevalence among Iranian adults

Quartiles of GI Quartiles of GL
  Total Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 P-value I Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 P-value
Nutrients
 Energy intake (kcal) 2897 ± 1378 2438 ± 1061a 2864 ± 1351b 3634 ± 1351b 2897 ± 1378b < 0.001 1646 ± 419.3a 2199 ± 494.1b 3019 ± 744.9b 4721 ± 1111b < 0.001
 Protein (% of total daily energy) 16.16 ± 0.04 16.82 ± 0.04a 16.73 ± 0.03 16.24 ± 0.04b 14.86 ± 0.04b < 0.001 17.84 ± 0.04a 16.59 ± 0.03b 16.11 ± 0.03b 14.10 ± 0.04b < 0.001
 Carbohydrate (% of total daily energy) 56.12 ± 0.09 53.81 ± 0.08a 54.58 ± 0.08 56.00 ± 0.08b 60.09 ± 11.21b < 0.001 52.55 ± 0.07a 55.40 ± 0.07b 55.87 ± 0.09b 60.67 ± 0.10b < 0.001
 Fat (% of total daily energy) 33.61 ± 0.09 32.90 ± 0.07a 32.67 ± 0.07 32.85 ± 0.07 0.36 ± 0.12b < 0.001 33.24 ± 0.06a 31.53 ± 0.06b 33.38 ± 0.09 36.28 ± 0.11b < 0.001
 Cholesterol (mg) 394.8 ± 391.3 363.5 ± 396.1a 394.1 ± 326.6 391.1 ± 336.4 430.6 ± 483.4b < 0.001 286.3 ± 322.9a 318.4 ± 206.4 432.7 ± 390.9b 542 ± 521.8b < 0.001
 SFA (g) 31.04 ± 18.36 27.13 ± 15.36a 29.58 ± 17.43b 30.48 ± 17.28b 36.98 ± 21.39b < 0.001 19.56 ± 9.62a 24.3 ± 11.47b 32.47 ± 15.22b 47.8 ± 20.82b < 0.001
 Vitamin E (mg/day) 11.36 ± 11.66 11.92 ± 11.85 11.52 ± 11.80 10.98 ± 12.02 11.01 ± 10.92 0.038 7.70 ± 7.16a 9.55 ± 8.93b 12.72 ± 13.28b 15.45 ± 14.19b < 0.001
 Vitamin C (mg) 210.5 ± 188.7 196.2 ± 169a 218.3 ± 214.3b 219.2 ± 169.6b 208.5 ± 197.1 < 0.001 115.1 ± 54.12a 166.8 ± 92b 243.2 ± 148.4b 317.1 ± 292.6b < 0.001
 Folic acid (µg) 379.8 ± 228 354.6 ± 215.5a 361.9 ± 217.7 370.8 ± 216.6 432.1 ± 251.8b < 0.001 230.7 ± 93.18a 300 ± 127.6b 410.8 ± 193.8b 577.8 ± 276.8b < 0.001
 Magnesium (mg) 339.3 ± 179.6 309.6 ± 155.2a 322.9 ± 166.2 336.2 ± 180.7b 339.3 ± 179.6b < 0.001 199.7 ± 58.38a 262.8 ± 79.31b 359 ± 125.2b 535.7 ± 198.7b < 0.001
Food groups (g/1000 kcal)
 Fruits 184.3 ± 138.4 205.6 ± 145.1a 202.3 ± 141.8 192.3 ± 130.3b 136.9 ± 124.1b < 0.001 187.8 ± 109.9a 204.8 ± 128.1b 202.8 ± 151.3b 184.3 ± 138.4b < 0.001
 Vegetables 96.6 ± 77.29 112 ± 82.82a 104.1 ± 78.03b 97.77 ± 75.50b 72.76 ± 66.25b < 0.001 119.6 ± 81.3a 104.7 ± 69.75b 96.78 ± 81.41b 65.57 ± 65.10b < 0.001
 Red meat 20.46 ± 18.37 22.60 ± 17.77a 24.60 ± 21.13b 20.12 ± 16.43b 14.51 ± 16.16b < 0.001 25.29 ± 20.43a 23.65 ± 16.75b 20.90 ± 19.34b 11.99 ± 13.15b < 0.001
 Fish 7 ± 13.56 5.90 ± 11.50a 6.70 ± 12.80 7.48 ± 14.42b 7.91 ± 15.14b < 0.001 5.85 ± 9.99a 5.65 ± 10.98 7.65 ± 14.93b 8.85 ± 16.90b < 0.001
 Dairy 89.84 ± 60.16 106.99 ± 76.74a 94.95 ± 53.32b 89.96 ± 53.41b 67.47 ± 45.57b < 0.001 104.2 ± 53.30a 95.85 ± 52.83b 86.20 ± 59.35b 73.09 ± 69.35b < 0.001
 Legumes and nuts 25.20 ± 19.14 29.78 ± 25.53a 25.64 ± 18.63b 24.07 ± 14.99b 21.31 ± 14.35b < 0.001 27.80 ± 18.12a 25.24 ± 18.01b 25.30 ± 20.19b 22.46 ± 19.80b < 0.001
 Whole grains 29.95 ± 27.33 26.68 ± 20.58a 32.32 ± 24.55b 33.81 ± 27.92b 27.01 ± 33.82 < 0.001 34.97 ± 24.53a 37.83 ± 28.35b 29.25 ± 28.89b 17.77 ± 22.65b < 0.001
 Refined grains 85.67 ± 58.18 126.70 ± 66.74a 93.05 ± 47.27b 67.95 ± 41.92b 55 ± 45.87b < 0.001 100.5 ± 54a 102 ± 49.75 82.02 ± 59.34b 58.11 ± 58.05b < 0.001
 Sugars 12.63 ± 11.64 10.21 ± 7.58a 11.88 ± 9.05b 13.36 ± 11.61b 15.07 ± 15.98b < 0.001 12.14 ± 9.27 12.74 ± 9.42 12.80 ± 12.58 12.84 ± 14.47 0.210
 Salt 2.94 ± 3.68 3.21 ± 2.94a 3.22 ± 3.45 3.14 ± 3.89 2.21 ± 4.21b < 0.001 4.24 ± 3.83a 3.61 ± 3.11b 2.41 ± 3.37b 1.52 ± 3.73b < 0.001
  1. GI glycemic index, GL glycemic load
  2. IObtained from one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni post-hoc test
  3. aFirst quartile is considered as reference quartile
  4. bSignificant difference between quartile with reference quartile (P value < 0.05)