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Table 1 General characteristics of participants across quartiles of GI and GL

From: Higher dietary glycemic load is inversely associated with stress prevalence among Iranian adults

Variable GI GL
Total Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 P-valuea Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 P-value
Depression, yes (%) 578 (8.1)a 148 (8.3) 142 (7.9) 130 (7.2) 158 (8.9) 0.326 158 (8.8) 153 (8.6) 132 (7.3) 135 (7.6) 0.252
Anxiety, yes (%) 754 (10.5) 186 (10.4) 186 (10.3) 170 (9.5) 212 (11.9) 0.113 200 (11.1) 190 (10.7) 183 (10.1) 181 (10.2) 0.710
Stress, yes (%) 238 (3.3) 58 (3.2) 65 (3.6) 54 (3) 61 (3.4) 0.776 68 (3.8) 69 (3.9) 54 (3) 47 (2.7) 0.106
BMI (kg/m2)
 < 18.5 247 (3.3) 61 (3.2) 63 (3.3) 75 (4) 48 (2.5) 0.018 57 (3) 55 (2.9) 73 (3.9) 62 (3.3) 0.112
 18.5–24.9 2339 (30.9) 595 (31.4) 618 (32.6) 586 (30.9) 540 (28.5) 577 (30.5) 630 (33.3) 577 (30.5) 555 (29.3)
 > 25 4988 (65.9) 1237 (65.3) 1213 (64) 1233 (65.1) 1305 (68.9) 1259 (66.5) 1209 (63.8) 1244 (65.7) 1276 (67.4)
Age (%)
 20–29 years 1586 (21.5) 419 (22.7) 404 (21.8) 404 (217) 359 (19.6) 0.052 322 (17.4) 404 (22) 433 (23.4) 427 (23.2) < 0.01
 30–39 years 1598 (20.8) 383 (20.8) 395 (21.4) 380 (20.4) 440 (24) 324 (17.5) 405 (22) 429 (23.1) 440 (23.9)
 40–49 years 1586 (21.5) 387 (21) 413 (22.3) 393 (21.1) 393 (21.4) 404 (21.8) 397 (21.6) 399 (21.5) 386 (21)
 50–59 years 1402 (19) 377 (20.4) 347 (18.8) 348 (18.7) 330 (18) 392 (21.2) 341 (18.5) 323 (17.4) 346 (18.8)
 60–69 years 1215 (16.4) 279 (15.1) 290 (15.7) 334 (18) 312 (17) 409 (22.1) 293 (15.9) 270 (14.6) 243 (13.2)
Physical activity (Met_min/week) 901.1b ± 905.1 890.8  ±  883.1 894.5 ± 910.5 877.5 ± 875 942.4 ± 950.3 0.156 826.6 ± 876.7 896.8 ± 896.4 932.8 ± 903 949 ± 939.7 < 0.01
Marriage (%)
 Single 856 (11.6) 232 (12.6) 225 (12.2) 206 (11.1) 193 (10.6) 0.019 178 (9.6) 224 (12.2) 220 (11.9) 234 (12.8) 0.001
 Married 6264 (85.1) 1575 (85.6) 1567 (84.8) 1570 (85.9) 1570 (85.9) 1587 (86) 1541 (84.2) 1585 (85.6) 1551 (84.6)
 Widowed or divorced 240 (3.3) 61 (3.3) 40 (2.2) 75 (4.1) 64 (3.5) 80 (4.3) 65 (3.6) 46 (2.5) 49 (2.7)
Smoking status (%)
 Never smoker 6328 (87.8) 1582 (87.6) 1576 (87) 1617 (89) 1553 (87.5) 0.496 1609 (88.4) 1567 (86.9) 1587 (87.7) 1565 (88.3) 0.520
 Current smoker 766 (10.6) 194 (10.7) 207 (11.4) 177 (9.7) 188 (10.6) 190 (10.4) 200 (11.1) 192 (10.6) 184 (10.4)
 Ex_smoker 113 (1.6) 29 (1.6) 29 (1.6) 22 (1.2) 33 (1.9) 22 (1.2) 36 (2) 31 (1.7) 24 (1.4)
 Gender, male (%) 3673 (49.7) 909 (49.1) 927 (50.2) 917 (49.5) 920 (50.2) 0.877 831 (44.8) 923 (50.3) 967 (52) 952 (51.9) < 0.01
Job (%)
 Unemployed 1415 (19.5) 353 (19.6) 325 (17.9) 357 (19.6) 380 (21.1) 0.336 358 (19.8) 359 (19.9) 306 (16.8) 392 (21.7) < 0.01
 Government employee 3537 (48.8) 898 (49.8) 898 (49.5) 904 (49.6) 837 (46.5) 960 (53.1) 898 (49.7) 876 (48.1) 803 (44.4)
 Manual worker 247 (3.4) 60 (3.3) 66 (3.6) 56 (3.1) 65 (3.6) 61 (3.4) 53 (2.9) 67 (3.7) 66 (3.6)
 Freelance job 2046 (28.2) 492 (27.3) 530 (29.1) 505 (27.7) 519 (28.8) 428 (23.7) 497 (27.5) 572 (31.4) 549 (30.3)
Education (%)
 Illiterate 1776 (24.1) 438 (23.7) 418 (22.7) 500 (27) 420 (23.1) 0.004 562 (30.5) 401 (21.8) 406 (22) 407 (22.3) < 0.01
 Middle school 2095 (28.5) 501 (27.2) 508 (27.6) 514 (27.7) 527 (31.4) 527 (28.6) 549 (29.9) 494 (26.7) 525 (28.7)
 Diploma 2289 (31.1) 611 (33.1) 590 (32) 553 (29.8) 535 (29.4) 520 (28.2) 557 (30.3) 629 (34) 583 (31.9)
 Bachelors degree 995 (13.5) 253 (13.7) 261 (14.2) 204 (12.9) 241 (13.2) 201 (10.9) 270 (14.7) 260 (14.1) 264 (14.4)
 Master and doctor 205 (2.8) 42 (2.3) 65 (3.5) 47 (2.5) 51 (2.8) 35 (1.9) 62 (3.4) 59 (3.2) 49 (2.7)
Multi-vitamins supplement (%)
 Never 6407 (86.1) 1727 (94.3) 1715 (91.9) 1619 (86.4) 1346 (72.1) > 0.01 1741 (94.2) 1727 (93.7) 1691 (90) 1248 (66.8) < 0.01
 1–3/month 482 (6.5) 44 (2.4) 67 (3.6) 95 (5.1) 276 (14.8) 34 (1.8) 37 (2) 64 (3.4) 347 (18.6)
 Minimal once a week 549 (7.4) 60 (3.3) 85 (4.6) 159 (8.5) 245 (13.1) 73 (4) 79 (4.3) 124 (6.6) 273 (14.6)
 Diabetes, yes (%) 912 (12) 233 (12.3) 209 (11) 244 (12.9) 226 (11.9) 0.358 313 (16.5) 229 (12.1) 194 (10.2) 176 (9.3) < 0.01
 Hypertension, yes (%) 1135 (15) 280 (14.8) 280 (14.8) 321 (16.9) 254 (13.4) 0.023 350 (18.5) 286 (14.1) 277 (14.6) 240 (12.7) < 0.01
  1. GI glycemic index, GL glycemic load
  2. aObtained from χ2 test and one-way anova for categorical and continuous variables, respectively
  3. bData are presented as mean ± standard deviation (SD)