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Table 1 Demographic characteristics and cognitive test scores in the two study groups

From: Impairments in brain perfusion, executive control network, topological characteristics, and neurocognition in adult patients with asymptomatic Moyamoya disease

  MMD group (n = 15) Control group (n = 20) p value Effect size Cohen’s d
Sex (M:F) 10:05 13:07 0.918   
Age, years 41.27 ± 10.36 48.95 ± 12.78 0.066 − 0.31 − 0.66
Education, years 10.53 ± 2.26 11.10 ± 3.82 0.588 − 0.09 − 0.18
Neurocognition score
SPM 15.93 ± 6.94 21.45 ± 9.13 0.06 − 0.32 − 0.68
ROT 14.13 ± 7.28 18.15 ± 12.67 0.246 − 0.19 − 0.38
VWM1 6.93 ± 1.58 7.60 ± 1.73 0.25 − 0.20 − 0.40
VWM2 5.00 ± 1.56 6.20 ± 2.22 0.083 − 0.29 − 0.62
SUB 30.73 ± 11.52 40.70 ± 9.57 0.009 − 0.43 − 0.94
COMSUB 12.00 ± 6.09 19.60 ± 9.32 0.006 − 0.43 − 0.96
WORDM 54.87 ± 14.48 64.40 ± 12.22 0.042 − 0.34 − 0.71
PICTM 72.47 ± 6.97 73.90 ± 5.64 0.506 − 0.11 − 0.23
Medical history, n (%)
Hypertension 4 (26.7) 5 (25) 0.911   
Diabetes mellitus 2 (13.3) 2 (10) 0.759   
Smoking history 3 (20) 3 (15) 0.698   
Alcohol consumer 3 (20) 2 (10) 0.403   
Suzuki stage
Left
1 3 (20)     
2 5 (33.3)     
3 5 (33.3)     
4 1 (6.7)     
5 1 (6.7)     
6 0     
Right
1 3 (20)     
2 4 (26.7)     
3 5 (33.3)     
4 2 (13.3)     
5 1 (6.7)     
6 0     
  1. The data are shown as the number (percentage) unless otherwise indicated. Mean values are presented with the standard deviation
  2. F female, M male, MMD asymptomatic Moyamoya disease, SPM Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices, ROT Mental rotation, VWM1 Verbal working memory-forward digit span task, VWM2 Verbal working memory-backward digit span task, SUB simple subtraction, COMSUB complex subtraction, WORDM word-memory, PICTM picture-memory