Skip to main content

Table 4 Mediation models

From: Cortical hemodynamics as a function of handgrip strength and cognitive performance: a cross-sectional fNIRS study in younger adults

Independent variable (x)/mediator (m)/dependent variable (y) Path A Path B Path AB (indirect effect) Path C (direct effect)
oxyHb
 Right AHS/Ch. 1/CA in ST β = 0.000 (0.000);
z (39) = 1.828; p = 0.068
β = 64.051 (52.713);
z (39) = 1.498; p = 0.134
β = 0.025; CI [− 0.008 to 0.095] β = − 0.003 (0.075); z (39) = − 0.234; p = 0.815
 Left AHS/Ch. 2/RT in ST β = 0.001 (0.000);
z (39) = 2.189; p = 0.029
β = − 1.854 (0.636);
z (39) = − 2.948; p = 0.003
β = − 0.002; CI [− 0.005 to 0.000] β = − 0.004 (0.002); z (39) = − 2.175; p = 0.030
 Left NHS/Ch. 2/RT in ST β = 0.016 (0.011);
z (39) = 1.537; p = 0.124
β = − 1.954 (0.710);
z (39) = − 2.801; p = 0.005
β = − 0.032; CI [− 0.097 to 0.003] β = − 0.082 (0.050); z (39) = − 1.862; p = 0.063
 Left AHS/Ch. 5/RT in ST β = 0.001 (0.000);
z (36) = 1.694; p = 0.090
β = − 3.004 (1.158);
z (36) = − 2.523; p = 0.012
β = − 0.002; CI [− 0.007 to 0.000] β = − 0.002 (0.003); z (36) = − 0.680; p = 0.497
 Left NHS/Ch. 5/RT in ST β = 0.014 (0.011);
z (36) = 1.271; p = 0.204
β = − 3.076 (1.056);
z (36) = − 2.857; p = 0.004
β = − 0.042; CI [− 0.150 to 0.012] β = − 0.038 (0.061); z (36) = − 0.661; p = 0.509
 Left AHS/Ch. 10/RT in ST β = 0.000 (0.000);
z (39) = 1.315; p = 0.188
β = − 4.091 (1.362);
z (39) = − 3.008; p = 0.003
β = − 0.002; CI [− 0.007 to 0.001] β = − 0.003 (0.003); z (39) = − 1.230; p = 0.219
 Left NHS/Ch. 10/RT in ST β = 0.010 (0.010);
z (39) = 1.237; p = 0.216
β = − 4.087 (1.290);
z (39) = − 3.190; p = 0.001
β = − 0.041; CI [− 0.170 to 0.016] β = − 0.062 (0.062); z (39) = − 0.998; p = 0.318
 Left AHS/Ch. 12/RT in ST β = 0.001 (0.000);
z (39) = 1.445; p = 0.148
β = − 1.949 (1.757);
z (39) = − 1.213; p = 0.225
β = − 0.001; CI [− 0.005 to 0.001] β = − 0.004 (0.003); z (39) = − 1.157; p = 0.247
 Left NHS/Ch. 12/RT in ST β = 0.009 (0.009);
z (39) = 0.661; p = 0.509
β = − 2.101 (1.747);
z (39) = − 1.310; p = 0.190
β = − 0.018; CI [− 0.101 to 0.010] β = − 0.075 (0.066); z (39) = − 1.211; p = 0.226
 Left AHS/Ch. 15/RT in ST β = 0.001 (0.000);
z (36) = 1.557; p = 0.119
β = − 2.227 (1.656);
z (36) = − 1.587; p = 0.112
β = − 0.002; CI [− 0.007 to 0.000] β = − 0.002 (0.003); z (36) = − 0.533; p = 0.594
 Left NHS/Ch. 15/RT in ST β = 0.018 (0.009);
z (36) = 1.761; p = 0.078
β = − 2.253 (1.592);
z (36) = − 1.685; p = 0.092
β = − 0.041; CI [− 0.135 to 0.005] β = − 0.040 (0.075); z (36) = − 0.553; p = 0.580
 Left AHS/Ch. 21/RT in ST β = 0.000 (0.000);
z (38) = 1.758; p = 0.079
β = − 1.781 (1.357);
z (38) = − 1.473; p = 0.141
β = − 0.001; CI [− 0.003 to 0.000] β = − 0.004 (0.003); z (38) = − 1.483; p = 0.138
 Left NHS/Ch. 21/RT in ST β = 0.007 (0.006);
z (38) = 0.987; p = 0.324
β = − 1.878 (1.461);
z (38) = − 1.389; p = 0.165
β = − 0.013; CI [− 0.065 to 0.012] β = − 0.082 (0.069); z (38) = − 1.285; p = 0.199
deoxyHb
 Left AHS/Ch. 2/RT in ST β = 0.000 (0.000);
z (39) = − 1.581; p = 0.114
β = 6.522 (5.036);
z (39) = 1.562; p = 0.118
β = − 0.001; CI [− 0.006 to 0.000] β = − 0.005 (0.002); z (39) = − 2.369; p = 0.018
 Left NHS/Ch. 2/RT in ST β = − 0.003 (0.003);
z (39) = − 1.189; p = 0.235
β = 6.710 (6.091);
z (39) = 1.362; p = 0.173
β = − 0.019; CI [− 0.134 to 0.010] β = − 0.098 (0.049); z (39) = − 2.083; p = 0.037
 Left AHS/Ch. 5/RT in ST β = 0.000 (0.000);
z (36) = − 1.944; p = 0.052
β = 6.349 (3.104);
z (36) = 2.037; p = 0.042
β = − 0.002; CI [− 0.006 to 0.000] β = − 0.002 (0.003); z (36) = − 0.662; p = 0.508
 Right AHS/Ch. 5/RT in ST β = 0.000 (0.000);
z (36) = − 1.480; p = 0.139
β = 6.989 (2.621);
z (36) = 2.689; p = 0.007
β = − 0.002; CI [− 0.006 to 0.000] β = − 0.001 (0.003); z (36) = − 0.198; p = 0.843
 Left NHS/Ch. 5/RT in ST β = − 0.007 (0.005);
z (36) = − 1.626; p = 0.104
β = 6.473 (3.060);
z (36) = 2.183; p = 0.029
β = − 0.042; CI [− 0.169 to 0.011] β = − 0.046 (0.031); z (36) = − 0.415; p = 0.678
 Right NHS/Ch. 5/RT in ST β = − 0.005 (0.005);
z (36) = − 1.417; p = 0.156
β = 6.965 (2.587);
z (36) = 2.788; p = 0.005
β = − 0.034; CI [− 0.147 to 0.009] β = − 0.028 (0.064); z (36) = − 0.083; p = 0.934
 Left AHS/Ch. 5/CA in ST β = 0.000 (0.000);
z (36) = − 1.922; p = 0.055
β = − 133.058 (117.670);
z (36) = − 1.223; p = 0.222
β = 0.039; CI [− 0.022 to 0.198] β = 0.001 (0.089); z (36) = − 0.202; p = 0.840
 Right AHS/Ch. 5/CA in ST β = 0.000 (0.000);
z (36) = − 1.483; p = 0.138
β = − 136.131 (119.154);
z (36) = − 1.262; p = 0.207
β = 0.030; CI [− 0.019 to 0.170] β = − 0.006 (0.091); z (36) = − 0.410; p = 0.682
 Left NHS/Ch. 5/CA in ST β = − 0.007 (0.005);
z (36) = − 1.609; p = 0.108
β = − 113.039 (115.465);
z (36) = − 1.047; p = 0.295
β = 0.737; CI [− 0.752 to 4.501] β = 0.912 (1.683); z (36) = 0.520; p = 0.603
 Right NHS/Ch. 5/CA in ST β = − 0.005 (0.005);
z (36) = − 1.400; p = 0.161
β = − 117.697 (117.911);
z (36) = − 1.064; p = 0.287
β = 0.568; CI [− 0.669 to 3.706] β = 0.691 (1.649); z (36) = − 0.345; p = 0.730
 Left AHS/Ch. 7/RT in ST β = 0.000 (0.000);
z (38) = − 2.180; p = 0.029
β = 4.306 (11.759);
z (38) = 0.416; p = 0.677
β = − 0.001; CI [− 0.009 to 0.006] β = − 0.005 (0.004); z (38) = − 1.147; p = 0.251
Left NHS/Ch. 7/RT in ST β = − 0.005 (0.004);
z (38) = − 1.841; p = 0.066
β = 5.213 (7.642);
z (38) = 0.739; p = 0.460
β = − 0.026; CI [− 0.174 to 0.070] β = − 0.091 (0.065); z (38) = − 1.507; p = 0.132
 Left AHS/Ch. 14/CA in ST β = 0.000 (0.000);
z (38) = − 1.535; p = 0.125
β = − 160.626 (75.764);
z (38) = − 2.060; p = 0.039
β = 0.065; CI [− 0.008 to 0.262] β = 0.015 (0.072); z (38) = 0.237; p = 0.813
 Left NHS/Ch. 14/CA in ST β = − 0.007 (0.007);
z (38) = − 1.327; p = 0.185
β = − 154.613 (75.744);
z (38) = − 1.994; p = 0.046
β = 1.151; CI [− 0.384 to 5.134] β = 0.945 (1.521); z (38) = 0.851; p = 0.395
  1. Significant paths are presented in italic
  2. AHS absolute handgrip strength, CA in ST percentage of correct answers in Sternberg task, Ch. channel, CI 95% confidence intervals, deoxyHb deoxygenated haemoglobin, NHS normalized handgrip strength (normalized to body-mass-index), RT reaction time in Sternberg task, ST Sternberg task