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Table 3 Overview of the regional cortical changes in the concentrations of deoxygenated hemoglobin (deoxyHb) measured during the Sternberg task (ST) and their correlations with measures of handgrip strength and cognitive performance

From: Cortical hemodynamics as a function of handgrip strength and cognitive performance: a cross-sectional fNIRS study in younger adults

Channels Median ± IQR Non-parametric partial correlations
DeoxyHb (µmol/L) AHS (left/right) NHS (left/right) Reaction time in ST/correct answers in ST
1 (rt. DLPFC; BA9) 0.001 ± 0.005 rp (35) = − 0.197; p = 0.243/rp (35) = − 0.182; p = 0.280 rp (35) = − 0.232; p = 0.167/rp (35) = − 0.245; p = 0.144 rp (35) = 0.198; p = 0.240/rp (35) = − 0.276; p = 0.099
2 (rt. Broca; BA 45) 0.000 ± 0.015 rp (35) = − 0.299; p = 0.072/rp (35) = − 0.180; p = 0.286 rp (35) = − 0.204; p = 0.225/rp (35) = − 0.133; p = 0.434 rp (35) = 0.343; p = 0.038/rp (35) = − 0.142; p = 0.401
3 (rt. Broca; BA 45) − 0.002 ± 0.011 rs (34) = − 0.071; p = 0.680/rp (34) = − 0.203; p = 0.234 rp (34) = − 0.088; p = 0.609/rp (34) = − 0.227; p = 0.183 rp (34) = 0.262; p = 0.122/rp (35) = − 0.199; p = 0.245
4 (rt. FPA; BA 10) 0.000 ± 0.023 rp (35) = − 0.301; p = 0.070/rp (35) = − 0.191; p = 0.258 rp (35) = − 0.294; p = 0.077/rp (35) = − 0.224; p = 0.182 rp (34) = 0.172; p = 0.307/rp (35) = − 0.095; p = 0.574
5 (rt. DLPFC; BA 9) 0.000 ± 0.015 rp (32) = − 0.442; p = 0.009/rp (32) = − 0.385; p = 0.025 rp (32) = − 0.454; p = 0.007/rp (32) = − 0.390; p = 0.023 rp (32) = 0.441; p = 0.009/rp (32) = − 0.236; p = 0.179
6 (rt. DLPFC; BA 46) − 0.006 ± 0.019 rp (34) = − 0.040; p = 0.818/rp (34) = − 0.112; p = 0.514 rp (34) = 0.005; p = 0.977/rp (34) = − 0.088; p = 0.610 rp (34) = 0.459; p = 0.005/rp (34) = − 0.275; p = 0.105
7 (rt. FPA; BA 10) 0.003 ± 0.012 rp (34) = − 0.379; p = 0.023/rp (34) = − 0.420; p = 0.011 rp (34) = − 0.339; p = 0.043/rp (34) = − 0.368; p = 0.027 rp (34) = 0.306; p = 0.070/rp (34) = − 0.177; p = 0.300
8 (rt. FPA; BA 10) 0.002 ± 0.013 rp (35) = − 0.363; p = 0.027/rp (35) = − 0.429; p = 0.008 rp (35) = − 0.347; p = 0.035/rp (35) = − 0.434; p = 0.007 rp (35) = 0.150; p = 0.376/rp (35) = − 0.113; p = 0.504
9 (rt. FPA; BA 10) 0.002 ± 0.014 rp (35) = − 0.200; p = 0.234/rp (35) = − 0.199; p = 0.239 rp (35) = − 0.252; p = 0.133/rp (35) = − 0.218; p = 0.194 rp (35) = 0.244; p = 0.145/rp (35) = − 0.113; p = 0.507
10 (md. FPA; BA 10) 0.001 ± 0.009 rp (35) = − 0.340; p = 0.039/rp (35) = − 0.306; p = 0.066 rp (35) = − 0.213; p = 0.205/rp (35) = − 0.188 p = 0.265 rp (35) = 0.031; p = 0.856/rp (35) = 0.047; p = 0.781
11 (lt. FPA; BA 10) 0.002 ± 0.012 rp (35) = − 0.194; p = 0.251/rp (35) = − 0.132; p = 0.437 rp (35) = − 0.072; p = 0.670/rp (35) = − 0.021; p = 0.904 rp (35) = 0.164; p = 0.331/rp (35) = − 0.085; p = 0.618
12 (lt. FPA; BA 10) 0.002 ± 0.010 rp (35) = − 0.390; p = 0.017/rp (35) = − 0.264; p = 0.115 rp (35) = − 0.263; p = 0.116/rp (35) = − 0.131; p = 0.438 rp (35) = 0.147; p = 0.385/rp (35) = 0.048; p = 0.776
13 (lt. FPA; BA 10) 0.002 ± 0.011 rp (34) = − 0.436; p = 0.008/rp (34) = − 0.326; p = 0.052 rp (34) = − 0.396; p = 0.017/rp (34) = − 0.252; p = 0.137 rp (34) = − 0.163; p = 0.341/rp (34) = 0.018; p = 0.916
14 (lt. DLPFC; BA 46) − 0.003 ± 0.025 rp (34) = − 0.263; p = 0.122/rp (34) = − 0.270; p = 0.112 rp (34) = − 0.240; p = 0.159/rp (34) = − 0.312; p = 0.064 rp (34) = 0.101; p = 0.557/rp (34) = − 0.338; p = 0.043
15 (lt. DLPFC; BA 9) 0.002 ± 0.017 rp (32) = − 0.409; p = 0.016/rp (32) = − 0.326; p = 0.060 rp (32) = − 0.493; p = 0.003/rp (32) = − 0.411; p = 0.016 rp (32) = 0.127; p = 0.474/rp (32) = − 0.027; p = 0.879
16 (lt. FPA; BA 10) 0.001 ± 0.021 rp (35) = − 0.206; p = 0.222/rp (35) = − 0.207; p = 0.219 rp (35) = − 0.097; p = 0.570/rp (35) = − 0.073; p = 0.667 rp (35) = − 0.027; p = 0.872/rp (35) = 0.003; p = 0.986
17 (lt. Broca; BA 45) − 0.003 ± 0.017 rp (35) = − 0.151; p = 0.373/rp (35) = − 0.210; p = 0.213 rp (35) = − 0.188; p = 0.264/rp (35) = − 0.244; p = 0.145 rp (35) = 0.020; p = 0.905/rp (35) = − 0.021; p = 0.901
18 (lt. Broca; BA 45) 0.002 ± 0.009 rp (35) = 0.281; p = 0.092/rp (35) = 0.296; p = 0.075 rp (35) = 0.293; p = 0.078/rp (35) = 0.263; p = 0.116 rp (35) = − 0.055; p = 0.746/rp (35) = − 0.130; p = 0.445
19 (lt. DLPFC; BA 9) 0.001 ± 0.008 rp (34) = − 0.123; p = 0.474/rp (34) = − 0.181; p = 0.291 rp (34) = − 0.080; p = 0.645/rp (34) = − 0.168; p = 0.327 rp (34) = − 0.154; p = 0.371/rp (34) = 0.067; p = 0.698
20 (rt. DLPFC; BA 9) 0.000 ± 0.011 rp (35) = − 0.226; p = 0.179/rp (35) = − 0.277; p = 0.097 rp (35) = − 0.185; p = 0.272/rp (35) = − 0.328; p = 0.048 rp (35) = − 0.053; p = 0.756/rp (35) = − 0.022; p = 0.898
21 (md. DLPFC; BA 9) 0.003 ± 0.010 rp (34) = − 0.276; p = 0.103/rp (34) = − 0.230; p = 0.178 rp (34) = − 0.315; p = 0.061/rp (34) = − 0.325; p = 0.053 rp (34) = − 0.029; p = 0.869/rp (34) = − 0.113; p = 0.511
22 (lt. DLPFC; BA 9) 0.002 ± 0.009 rp (35) = − 0.155; p = 0.359/rp (35) = − 0.085; p = 0.618 rp (35) = − 0.144; p = 0.395/rp (35) = − 0.103; p = 0.545 rp (35) = − 0.073; p = 0.666/rp (35) = 0.003; p = 0.984
  1. On the left hand of the table, median ± interquartile range (IQR) of concentrations of deoxyHb are displayed. On the right hand of the table, non-parametric partial correlations (controlled for age and gender) between deoxyHb and absolute handgrip strength (AHS), normalized handgrip strength (NHS), reaction time and percentage of correct answers in the ST are shown. Significant correlations are presented in italic
  2. BA broadman area, DLPFC dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, FPA frontopolar area, lt. left, md. middle, rp partial correlation controlling for the influence of age and gender, rt. right, ST Sternberg task