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Table 2 Overview of the regional cortical changes in the concentrations of oxygenated hemoglobin (oxyHb) measured during the Sternberg task (ST) and their correlations with measures of handgrip strength and cognitive performance

From: Cortical hemodynamics as a function of handgrip strength and cognitive performance: a cross-sectional fNIRS study in younger adults

Channels Median ± IQR Non-parametric partial correlations
OxyHb (µmol/L) AHS (left/right) NHS (left/right) Reaction time in ST/correct answers in ST
1 (rt. DLPFC; BA9) 0.017 ± 0.028 rp (35) = 0.179; p = 0.288/rp (35) = 0.241; p = 0.151 rp (35) = 0.145; p = 0.391/rp (35) = 0.190; p = 0.260 rp (35) = − 0.417; p = 0.010/rp (35) = 0.401; p = 0.014
2 (rt. Broca; BA 45) 0.013 ± 0.058 rp (35) = 0.287; p = 0.085/rp (35) = 0.161; p = 0.340 rp (35) = 0.210; p = 0.212/rp (35) = 0.134; p = 0.430 rp (35) = − 0.426; p = 0.009/rp (35) = 0.206; p = 0.222
3 (rt. Broca; BA 45) 0.017 ± 0.053 rp (34) = 0.021; p = 0.905/rp (34) = 0.075; p = 0.663 rp (34) = 0.036; p = 0.833/rp (34) = 0.108; p = 0.530 rp (34) = − 0.388; p = 0.019/rp (34) = 0.241; p = 0.156
4 (rt. FPA; BA 10) − 0.018 ± 0.073 rp (35) = − 0.021; p = 0.903/rp (35) = − 0.007; p = 0.968 rp (35) = − 0.094; p = 0.581/rp (35) = − 0.061; p = 0.719 rp (35) = − 0.170; p = 0.316/rp (35) = 0.249; p = 0.138
5 (rt. DLPFC; BA 9) 0.016 ± 0.052 rp (32) = 0.359; p = 0.037/rp (32) = 0.257; p = 0.143 rp (32) = 0.225; p = 0.202/rp (32) = 0.147; p = 0.407 rp (32) = − 0.404; p = 0.018/rp (32) = 0.177; p = 0.317
6 (rt. DLPFC; BA 46) 0.021 ± 0.077 rp (34) = 0.157; p = 0.360/rp (34) = 0.174; p = 0.310 rp (34) = 0.087; p = 0.613/rp (34) = 0.161; p = 0.347 rp (34) = − 0.431; p = 0.009/rp (34) = 0.227; p = 0.182
7 (rt. FPA; BA 10) 0.012 ± 0.035 rp (34) = 0.005; p = 0.979/rp (34) = 0.053; p = 0.759 rp (34) = − 0.068; p = 0.692/rp (34) = 0.009; p = 0.958 rp (34) = 0.091; p = 0.598/rp (34) = − 0.160; p = 0.351
8 (rt. FPA; BA 10) 0.008 ± 0.049 rp (35) = 0.142; p = 0.402/rp (35) = 0.128; p = 0.451 rp (35) = 0.013; p = 0.940/rp (35) = 0.008; p = 0.964 rp (35) = − 0.299; p = 0.072/rp (35) = 0.145; p = 0.391
9 (rt. FPA; BA 10) − 0.037 ± 0.043 rp (35) = 0.135; p = 0.427/rp (35) = 0.108; p = 0.524 rp (35) = 0.120; p = 0.481/rp (35) = 0.116; p = 0.494 rp (35) = − 0.091; p = 0.593/rp (35) = 0.221; p = 0.188
10 (md. FPA; BA 10) − 0.004 ± 0.037 rp (35) = 0.246; p = 0.143/rp (35) = 0.125; p = 0.460 rp (35) = 0.273; p = 0.102/rp (35) = 0.152; p = 0.370 rp (35) = − 0.518; p = 0.001/rp (35) = 0.173; p = 0.306
11 (lt. FPA; BA 10) − 0.019 ± 0.056 rp (35) = 0.102; p = 0.546/rp (35) = − 0.018; p = 0.915 rp (35) = 0.093; p = 0.585/rp (35) = − 0.014; p = 0.934 rp (35) = − 0.416; p = 0.010/rp (35) = 0.045; p = 0.793
12 (lt. FPA; BA 10) 0.004 ± 0.049 rp (35) = 0.295; p = 0.077/rp (35) = 0.141; p = 0.405 rp (35) = 0.214; p = 0.205/rp (35) = 0.072; p = 0.672 rp (35) = − 0.393; p = 0.016/rp (35) = 0.103; p = 0.545
13 (lt. FPA; BA 10) − 0.003 ± 0.052 rp (34) = 0.244; p = 0.152/rp (34) = 0.102; p = 0.555 rp (34) = 0.152; p = 0.375/rp (34) = 0.017; p = 0.923 rp (35) = − 0.099; p = 0.566/rp (35) = − 0.088; p = 0.610
14 (lt. DLPFC; BA 46) 0.018 ± 0.057 rp (34) = 0.088; p = 0.609/rp (34) = 0.066; p = 0.704 rp (34) = 0.048; p = 0.782/rp (34) = 0.088; p = 0.611 rp (34) = − 0.118; p = 0.492/rp (34) = 0.207; p = 0.225
15 (lt. DLPFC; BA 9) 0.002 ± 0.037 rp (32) = 0.269; p = 0.125/rp (32) = 0.095; p = 0.593 rp (32) = 0.242; p = 0.169/rp (32) = 0.060; p = 0.736 rp (32) = − 0.459; p = 0.006/rp (32) = 0.202; p = 0.251
16 (lt. FPA; BA 10) − 0.008 ± 0.063 rp (35) = 0.115; p = 0.498/rp (35) = 0.167; p = 0.322 rp (35) = 0.115; p = 0.498/rp (35) = 0.171; p = 0.311 rp (35) = 0.000; p = 1.000/rp (35) = 0.122; p = 0.474
17 (lt. Broca; BA 45) 0.019 ± 0.071 rp (35) = 0.165; p = 0.329/rp (35) = 0.116; p = 0.493 rp (35) = 0.165; p = 0.329/rp (35) = 0.173; p = 0.306 rp (35) = − 0.230; p = 0.170/rp (35) = 0.133; p = 0.431
18 (lt. Broca; BA 45) 0.013 ± 0.051 rp (35) = 0.089; p = 0.601/rp (35) = 0.030; p = 0.860 rp (35) = − 0.014; p = 0.936/rp (35) = 0.007; p = 0.970 rp (35) = 0.017; p = 0.922/rp (35) = 0.033; p = 0.844
19 (lt. DLPFC; BA 9) 0.014 ± 0.035 rp (34) = 0.109; p = 0.527/rp (34) = 0.020; p = 0.908 rp (34) = 0.021; p = 0.902/rp (34) = − 0.029; p = 0.868 rp (34) = − 0.131; p = 0.445/rp (34) = 0.089; p = 0.606
20 (rt. DLPFC; BA 9) 0.009 ± 0.031 rp (35) = 0.241; p = 0.151/rp (35) = 0.288; p = 0.084 rp (35) = 0.154; p = 0.362/rp (35) = 0.243; p = 0.147 rp (35) = − 0.042; p = 0.806/rp (35) = 0.234; p = 0.164
21 (md. DLPFC; BA 9) 0.003 ± 0.032 rp (34) = 0. 358; p = 0.032/rp (34) = 0.230; p = 0.178 rp (34) = 0.228; p = 0.181/rp (34) = 0.088; p = 0.612 rp (34) = − 0.315; p = 0.061/rp (34) = 0.299; p = 0.076
22 (lt. DLPFC; BA 9) 0.001 ± 0.029 rp (35) = 0.110; p = 0.517/rp (35) = − 0.030; p = 0.860 rp (35) = 0.092; p = 0.587/rp (35) = − 0.054; p = 0.752 rp (35) = − 0.389; p = 0.017/rp (35) = 0.248; p = 0.139
  1. On the left hand of the table, median ± interquartile range (IQR) of concentrations of oxyHb are displayed. On the right hand of the table, non-parametric correlations (controlled for age and gender) between oxyHb and absolute handgrip strength (AHS), normalized handgrip strength (NHS), reaction time and percentage of correct answers in the ST are shown. Significant correlations are presented in italic
  2. BA broadman area, DLPFC dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, FPA frontopolar area, lt. left, md. middle, rp partial correlation controlling for age and gender, rt. right, ST Sternberg task