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Fig. 2 | BMC Neuroscience

Fig. 2

From: Ketamine affects the integration of developmentally generated granule neurons in the adult stage

Fig. 2

Anesthesia with ketamine (40 mg/kg × 4 injections) in neonatal rats at postnatal day 7 (PND-7) induces learning and memory impairment in the adult stage. Compared with the control group, ketamine anesthesia significantly increased the latency times of rats swimming in the Morris Water Maze (MWM) (a). In the memory retrieval tests, the time that each rat spent in the target quadrant within 120 s was significantly reduced in the ketamine group compared to that of the control group (b). The numbers of crossovers of the previous platform site within 120 s was significantly reduced in the ketamine group compared to that of the control group (c). Typical path charts of space exploration were exhibited (d). Data are presented as the mean ± SD, six animals per group. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 vs. the control group

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