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Fig. 5 | BMC Neuroscience

Fig. 5

From: Neurovascular dysfunction in vascular dementia, Alzheimer’s and atherosclerosis

Fig. 5

Adapted from [76]

Vascular lesions in small vessel disease. Key types of vascular lesions found in the brain as a result of small vessel disease (SVD) leading to cognitive impairment (vascular dementia) and stroke include microbleeds, microinfarcts; where fatty deposits accumulate to restrict luminal diameter, and inflammatory white matter pathology such as lipohyalinosis, where hyaline deposits within connective tissue in addition to astrocytic gliosis (scarring) and wall swelling to disrupt the uniformity of vessel walls within the brain.

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