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Fig. 4 | BMC Neuroscience

Fig. 4

From: Anti-inflammatory effects of minocycline are mediated by retinoid signaling

Fig. 4

TNF-α and IL-6 synthesis after LPS-induced pro-inflammatory stimulation of human microglial-like cells. LPS-stimulated cytokine expression of human microglial-like cells: Minocycline inhibits the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α (a, b) and IL-6 (c, d) only in combination with retionids. Cytokine levels are presented relative to protein concentration. Tested conditions included vehicle (VEH), retinol (ROL), minocycline (MINO) and a combination of ROL and MINO, given as differences between LPS-stimulated and the unstimulated conditions. Values are given as mean ± SEM from at least four healthy controls in independent experiments

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