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Fig. 3 | BMC Neuroscience

Fig. 3

From: Anti-inflammatory effects of minocycline are mediated by retinoid signaling

Fig. 3

Expression of IDO and KMO after LPS-induced pro-inflammatory stimulation of human microglial-like cells. LPS induces an increase of the expression of the kynurenine pathway-enzymes IDO (a) and KMO (b). Minocycline (MINO) potently inhibits stimulation of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) expression only in the presence of retinol (ROL) (a). For Kynurenine-3-monooxygenase (KMO), the same trend can be observed, however reaching no statistical significance (b). Results are given as fold over vehicle (VEH), mRNA expression was calculated relative to GAPDH housekeeping gene expression (ΔΔCT-Method). Results are presented as means +/- SEM from 4 healthy controls, assessed in 4 independent experiments

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