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Table 3 Immunohistology for activated and neuroprotected sensory neurons in healthy and diabetic rats after nerve reconstruction

From: Regeneration of long-distance peripheral nerve defects after delayed reconstruction in healthy and diabetic rats is supported by immunomodulatory chitosan nerve guides

Treatment Immunohistology of dorsal root ganglia (DRG; L4/L5)
ATF-3 control (% of total sensory neurons) ATF-3 experimental (% of total sensory neurons) HSP-27 control (% of area in sections of DRG) HSP-27 experimental (% of area in sections of DRG) HSP-27 ratio Exp/Con
hCNG-Ihealthy (n = 5) 1.4 [1.0–2.9] 3.1 [2.9–4.0]c 9.9 [7.6–10.1] 16.5 [15.6–18.5]g 1.9 [1.7–2.1]
hCNG-Idiabetic (n = 11)k 1.8 [1.1–2.6] 4.6 [3.7–4.9]d 6.6 [6.0–6.9] 17.1 [15.3–19.8]h 2.6 [2.4–3.0]
CFeCNG-Ihealthy (n = 6)k 1.5 [1.2–1.8] 5.0 [4.9–6.1]e 8.2 [6.5–10.6] 16.4 [11.0–23.5]i 1.7 [1.5–2.7]
CFeCNG-Idiabetic (n = 7) 2.3 [1.2–2.6] 5.7 [5.0–6.0]f 8.3 [5.4–9.1] 18.2 [14.9–19.0]j 2.2 [2.1–2.8]
p-valuea (KW) 0.77 0.001 0.06 0.84 0.034
Fisher’s methodb
 hCNG-I/CFeCNG-I NA 0.0001 NA NA 0.36
 Healthy/diabetic NA 0.14 NA NA 0.004
  1. Activation was detected by ATF-3 immunostaining and neuroprotection by HSP-27 immunostaining in dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons at 56 days after delayed nerve reconstruction in healthy Wistar rats and diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats. At 45 days post injury a 15 mm long sciatic nerve defect was bridged by a hollow chitosan nerve guide (hCNG-I) or a chitosan nerve guide with a centrally introduced chitosan film (CFeCNG-I)
  2. Values are median (interquartile range; IQR)
  3. Italic p-values indicate statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) between the examined groups
  4. NA = not applicable (i.e. KW = Kruskal–Wallis not significant)
  5. aKW = Kruskal–Wallis
  6. bFisher’s method for independent samples based on the Chi square distribution
  7. c–jWilcoxon = statistical difference between experimental and control sides; c 0.043; d 0.005; e 0.043; f 0.018; g 0.043; h 0.005; i 0.043; j 0.018; respectively
  8. kOne missing value in the group