Skip to main content

Table 2 Nerve regeneration in healthy Wistar rats and in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats

From: Regeneration of long-distance peripheral nerve defects after delayed reconstruction in healthy and diabetic rats is supported by immunomodulatory chitosan nerve guides

  hCNG-Ihealthy (n = 5) CFeCNG-Ihealthy (n = 6) hCNG-Idiabetic (n = 11) CFeCNG-Idiabetic (n = 7) p-values (KW) Fisher’s methoda
hCNG-I/CFeCNG-I Healthy/diabetic
Preoperative B-glucose (mmol/l) 3.9 [3.7–4.3] 4.0 [3.4–4.1] 7.9 [7.1–8.7] 8.1 [6.7–8.6] 0.0001 0.96 <0.0001
Regenerative Matrix Present (non-complete/complete single-strand/complete double-strand) 1/4/0 2/2/2 8/3/0 0/1/6 NA NA NA
Axonal outgrowth (neurofilament present in SND) 5/5 6/6 11/11 7/7 NA NA NA
ATF-3 (% of total)
 At 3 mm 8.1 [3.0–9.1] 8.8 [6.2–10.6] 6.0 [4.5–10.4] 9.5 [5.2–11.1] 0.51 NA NA
 In conduit TFO 11.4 [6.8–12.7]d 16.8 [15.8–22.3]b 14.2 [10.3–22.5] 0.29 NA NA
 In SND 7.3 [6.2–16.7] 10.2 [8.6–12.9] 12.2 [9.4–14.3] 6.5 [6.0–11.1] 0.23 NA NA
Cleaved caspase-3 (% of total)
 At 3 mm 30.5 [27.4–37.7] 31.2 [25.2–33.1] 31.9 [28.8–46.8] 19.1 [14.6–20.1] 0.004 0.001 0.02
 In conduit TFO TFO 14.2 [12.5–16.1]c 12.9 [11.1–17.6] 0.082 NA NA
 In SND 28.0 [22.1–33.5] 28.6 [25.2–38.8] 37.8 [27.1–41.7] 37.4 [30.7–39.2] 0.36 NA NA
DAPI stained cells (no/mm2)
 At 3 mm 167 [139–195] 156 [129–185] 184 [152–206] 169 [151–232] 0.59 NA NA
 In conduit TFO 3490 [3362–3980]d 1727 [1412–2921] 3198 [1991–3635] 0.21 NA NA
 In SND 2823 [2201–3234] 2542 [2083–3036] 3071 [2445–3454] 2732 [2330–3733] 0.60 NA NA
  1. At 45 days post injury, a 15 mm long sciatic nerve defect has been bridged by a one-chambered hollow chitosan nerve guide (hCNG-I) or a two-chambered chitosan nerve guide with a centrally introduced chitosan film (CFeCNG-I). Evaluation was performed after a further 56 days. Values are median 25th(Q1)–75th(Q3) percentiles
  2. Italic p-values indicate statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) between the examined groups
  3. KW Kruskal–Wallis, SND distal nerve segment, TFO too few observations to apply statistics, NA not applicable (i.e. KW = Kruskal–Wallis not significant)
  4. aFisher’s method for independent samples based on the Chi square distribution from the subsequent Mann–Whitney test after Kruskal–Wallis test
  5. b6 missing values
  6. c7 missing values
  7. d2 missing values