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Fig. 1 | BMC Neuroscience

Fig. 1

From: Iron oxide nanoparticles may damage to the neural tissue through iron accumulation, oxidative stress, and protein aggregation

Fig. 1

IONPs can cause iron accumulation, oxidative stress, and protein aggregation. IONPs present a large surface area for redox cycling [9]; in addition, the iron ions released from IONPs can also contribute to Fenton’s reaction, produce OH· from H2O2, and finally lead to oxidative stress [57]. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) may directly damage DNA, cell membrane, and organelle’s membrane. ROS result in release of Ca2+ and cytochrome C from mitochondria, and therefore, induction of apoptosis [11]. Furthermore, ROS leads to the release of iron from lysosomes and mitochondria through damaging organelle’s membrane, [18], and iron accumulation in cytosol. Both ROS and free iron interact with a number of proteins, change their conformation, and mediate their aggregation [25]

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