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Fig. 5 | BMC Neuroscience

Fig. 5

From: Astaxanthin protects astrocytes against trauma-induced apoptosis through inhibition of NKCC1 expression via the NF-κB signaling pathway

Fig. 5

ATX or PDTC pretreatment inhibits NKCC1 expression in astrocytes after injury. NKCC1 mRNA level (A) and protein expression (B) were elevated in a time-dependent manner after injury. Pretreatment with ATX (50 μmol/L) or PDTC (10 μmol/L) for 2 h prior to injury reduced NKCC1 protein expression remarkably (C). Immunofluoresence was performed at 24 h after injury and the fluorescence intensity of NKCC1 in astrocytes was enhanced. Administration of ATX (50 μmol/L) or PDTC (10 μmol/L) for 2 h prior to injury decreased NKCC1 expression (D). Scale bar 25 μm. ATX, astaxanthin. Mean ± SEM (n = 3). *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 versus the control group; # p < 0.05 versus the injury group

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