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Fig. 4 | BMC Neuroscience

Fig. 4

From: Astaxanthin protects astrocytes against trauma-induced apoptosis through inhibition of NKCC1 expression via the NF-κB signaling pathway

Fig. 4

ATX inhibits activation of the NF-кB pathway in astrocytes after injury. Injury increased the mRNA (A) and protein expression (B) of NF-кB p65 in astrocytes in a time-dependent manner. C ATX (25 and 50 μmol/L) had a significant inhibitory effect on the expression of NF-кB p65 in astrocytes after injury. D NF-кB p65 expressions in the cytoplasm and nuclei were measured by Western blot. ATX astaxanthin. Mean ± SEM (n = 3). *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 versus the control group; # p < 0.05 versus the injury group

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