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Fig. 3 | BMC Neuroscience

Fig. 3

From: Astaxanthin protects astrocytes against trauma-induced apoptosis through inhibition of NKCC1 expression via the NF-κB signaling pathway

Fig. 3

The effects of ATX on the mRNA and protein expressions of IL-1β (A), IL-6 (B) and TNF-α (C) in astrocytes after injury. Astrocytes were pretreated with ATX (50 μmol/L) or PDTC (10 μmol/L) for 2 h, injured, and incubated for 24 h. The mRNA expressions of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α were elevated after injury compared with controls. However, the production of pro-inflammatory mediators was significantly reduced by ATX or PDTC. GAPDH was used as an internal control. A similar effect was observed for their protein expressions. ATX astaxanthin. Mean ± SEM (n = 3). **p < 0.01 versus the control group; # p < 0.05 versus the injury group

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