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Fig. 1 | BMC Neuroscience

Fig. 1

From: Astaxanthin protects astrocytes against trauma-induced apoptosis through inhibition of NKCC1 expression via the NF-κB signaling pathway

Fig. 1

The protective effects of ATX on astrocyte viability after stretch injury. a Astrocytes underwent stretch-induced cell injury. Cell viability at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h after injury was tested by CCK-8 assays. b Astrocytes were treated with different concentrations of ATX (10, 25, 50 or 100 μmol/L) for 24 h. Cell viability was estimated using CCK-8 assays. c Astrocytes were pretreated with 10, 25, or 50 μmol/L ATX for 2 h and then injured and incubated for 24 h. CCK-8 assays were performed to evaluate cell viability. d Astrocytes were incubated with 50 μmol/L ATX for 2 h prior to injury for another 24 h, and then morphological changes were analyzed (×200). ATX astaxanthin. Mean ± SEM (n = 3). *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01 versus the control group; # p < 0.05 versus the injury group

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