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Fig. 1 | BMC Neuroscience

Fig. 1

From: Effectiveness of conservative interventions for sickness and pain behaviors induced by a high repetition high force upper extremity task

Fig. 1

Duration of social interaction, aggression, forepaw withdrawal behavioral changes and reach performance abilities. a Duration of positive social interaction (in seconds) of adult rats with a novel juvenile rat during a 300 s observation period. b Incidence of aggression of the adult rat with a novel juvenile rat during social interaction period (which ended the test, thus lowering the duration of positive social interaction in a). c Forepaw withdrawal response to light probing of glabrous skin at midpoint of forepaw. Y-axis shows size of von Frey filament (in grams) required to elicit a withdrawal response (mean of 5 probings shown). d Reach impulse (Newton’s of reach force multiplied by grasp time in seconds). HRHF and LRLF targets are indicated by dashed lines. e Example of a successful reach. The upper orange line indicates the maximum force threshold, the blue line depicts the lower force threshold; the green line depicts the target force threshold; and the pink line above the time marker shows the force deflection. The reward line shows that a food reward was delivered to a trough for rats to lick up. f Example of three unsuccessful reaches in one 500 ms cueing cycle, in which all reaches were below the target threshold (green line); thus, no food reward was dispensed. Results of two-way ANOVAs for each behavioral parameter are shown. *p < 0.05 in ac, compared to age-matched FRC rats; **p < 0.01 in d, compared to week 1 results of same group; †,††p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively, compared to age-matched untreated HRHF rats

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