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Table 1 Visualized movements included in the Vividness of Movement Imagery Questionnaire (VMIQ-2)

From: Experience-dependent modulation of alpha and beta during action observation and motor imagery

1. Walking
2. Running
3. Kicking a stone
4. Bending to pick up a coin
5. Running up stairs
6. Jumping sideways
7. Throwing a stone into water
8. Kicking a ball in the air
9. Running downhill
10. Riding a bike
11. Swinging on a rope
12. Jumping off a high wall
  1. The complete VMIQ-2 [23] requires participants to imagine each of these items in turn under three conditions: internal visual imagery, external visual imagery, and kinesthetic (i.e., motor) imagery. The present study was only interested in evaluating kinesthetic motor imagery, so participants were asked to imagine themselves performing each of the items listed with their eyes closed and as though they could “feel [them]self doing the movement” as per the VMIQ-2 instructions [23]. Once they had formed a clear motor image of each item, participants were asked to rate how clearly and vividly they could feel themselves performing the movement on the following scale: 1 = Perfectly clear and as vivid (as normal vision or feel of movement), 2 = Clear and reasonably vivid, 3 = Moderately clear and vivid, 4 = Vague and dim, 5 = No image at all, you only “know” that you are thinking of the skill