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Table 2 Demographic and behavioral data

From: The anterior insula and anterior cingulate cortex are associated with avoidance of dental treatment based on prior experience of treatment in healthy adults

  Mean SD Min Max p valuea
(A) ‘Dental fear’ experiment (n = 17)*
 Gender (male/female) 9/8     
 Age (years)b 24.2 2.0 20 27  
 Dental avoidance2
  Experience-based 2.6 1.4 0.6 5.6 0.06
  Imagination-basedc 3.8 2.6 0 7.5
 MDAS scoreb 13.6 3.9 9 20  
 Elicited fearb 5.0 1.7 3.0 8.9  
(B) ‘Resting state’ experiment (n = 18)
 Gender (male/female) 9/9     
 Age (years)b 24.5 2.1 22 29  
 Dental avoidance2
  Experience-based 2.5 1.7 0.8 5.9 0.07
  Imagination-based 3.4 2.4 0 7.5  
  Dental avoidance MDAS score Elicited fear
Experience-based Imagination-based
(C) Correlation of the variables from the ‘Dental fear’ experiment
 Age (years) −0.298 −0.405 −0.123 0.020
 Dental avoidance     
  Experience-based   0.396 0.763*** 0.551*
  Imagination-based    0.344 0.250
 MDAS score     0.711**
  1. MDAS Modified Dental Anxiety Scale, SD standard deviation
  2. * Denotes the p value of two-tailed Pearson correlation coefficient <0.05; ** p value < 0.01; *** p value <0.001
  3. aTwo-tailed paired t-test was performed from comparing between the ‘experience-based’ and the ‘imagination-based’ scores
  4. bNormality was assessed according to the the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test for normal distribution; normality was accepted if p > 0.05. The patients’ age, the scores of dental avoidance, MDAS, and elicited fear conformed to normal distribution
  5. cTwo participants did not complete the dental avoidance ratings based on imagination