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Table 1 Demographic, clinical, and behavioural characteristics

From: Decreased neural activity and neural connectivity while performing a set-shifting task after inhibiting repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on the left dorsal prefrontal cortex

  Sham (N = 17) Verum (N = 16) p value
Demographics
Age (years) 57 ± 10 (41–70) 55 ± 9 (39–75) .61a
Gender (% men) 11 (65%) 9 (56%) .62b
Educatione 6 (3–7) 6 (4–7) .04b
IQ estimation 110 ± 14 (82–130) 98 ± 12 (73–123) .01a
Handedness (right) 16 (94%) 14 (88%) .60c
Clinical measures
MMSE 29 (27–30) 29 (28–30) .36d
BDI 1 (0–4) 2 (0–10) .33d
BAI 1 (0–5) 1 (0–11) .61d
Stimulation measures
Interval session 1–session 2 (days) 14 (7–35) 15 (6–28) .93d
Interval stimulation–task (s) 356 (277–800) 319 (240–488) .053d
Behavioural measures
Session 1: RT correct repeat trials (ms) 820 ± 201 (503–1,182) 849 ± 212 (540–1,269)  
Session 2: RT correct repeat trials (ms) 738 ± 210 (483–1,167) 803 ± 191 (479–1,150)  
Session 1: RT correct switch trials (ms) 901 ± 210 (519–1,286) 927 ± 230 (623–1,354)  
Session 2: RT correct switch trials (ms) 842 ± 240 (541–1,286) 901 ± 244 (517–1,324)  
Session 1: Switch costs (ms) 68 (−24–341) 61 (−23–269)  
Session 2: Switch costs (ms) 107 (−5–201) 79 (1–234)  
Session 1: Failed repeat trials (% of total) .76 (0–4.08) .73 (0–4.21)  
Session 2: Failed repeat trials (% of total) .71 (0–4.78) .55 (0–3.51)  
Session 1: Failed switch trials (% of total) .37 (0–3.79) .18 (0–2.19)  
Session 2: Failed switch trials (% of total) 0 (0–1.76) .74 (0–3.51)  
  1. Values are presented as mean ± standard deviation or median (range) unless indicated otherwise.
  2. MMSE mini-mental state examination, BDI Beck depression inventory, BAI Beck anxiety inventory.
  3. aIndependent samples t test.
  4. bPearson’s χ2 test.
  5. cFisher’s exact test.
  6. dIndependent samples Mann–Whitney U test.
  7. eEducation level was measured in 7 levels ranging from 1 (no finished education) to 7 (university training).