Effects of exercise on neural stem cells in adult and D-gal treated mice. Immunohistochemistry for nestin in the dentate gyrus of the S-Veh (A), Ex-Veh (B), S-D-gal (C), and Ex-D-gal (D) groups. Granule cell layer, GCL; polymorphic layer, PoL; ML, molecular layer. Scale bar =50 μm. E: Relative optical density (ROD) demonstrated as percentages of S-Veh in nestin immunoreactivity per section in all groups. F: ROD of the immunoblot bands is demonstrated as percent values (aP <0.05, between vehicle vs. D-gal groups, bP <0.05, between sedentary vs. exercise groups). All data are shown as the ean ± SEM.